Tuesday, July 16, 2024

Which Of The Following Is Not A Risk Factor For Coronary Heart Disease

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Risk Factors You Cant Control

Cardiac Education Session 6: Risk Factors for Heart Disease

Its important to be aware of risk factors you cant control, because you may be able to monitor their effects.

Age and gender

Your risk of CAD increases as you age. This is because plaque builds up over time. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute , the risk for women increases at age 55. The risk for men increases at age 45.

CAD is the most common kind of heart disease among both men and women in the United States. White men between the ages of 35 and 44 are about 6 times more likely to die of CAD than white women in that same age group, according to a 2016 overview. The difference is less among people who arent white.

The death rate among women increases after menopause. A womans risk of death from CAD is equal to or greater than the same risk for a man by age 75.

Some degree of cardiovascular disease at the level of the heart muscle and coronary arteries often occurs as people age. The condition is identifiable in more than 80 percent of adults over age 80, according to a 2007 review .

Changes that occur in the body as you age create conditions that make it easy for heart disease to develop. For example, the smooth artery vessel walls can naturally develop rough surfaces with abnormal blood flow that attract plaque deposits and cause stiffening of the arteries.


In the United States, heart disease is the leading cause of death for most ethnicities. According to the , heart disease is second only to cancer as a cause of death among:

What Causes Coronary Artery Disease

CAD is caused by plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the heart and other parts of the body.

Plaque is made up of deposits of cholesterol and other substances in the artery. Plaque buildup causes the inside of the arteries to narrow over time, which can partially or totally block the blood flow. This process is called atherosclerosis.

What Should I Expect If I Have Coronary Artery Disease Can It Be Cured

Technically coronary artery disease cant be cured. If youve been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, follow your healthcare providers treatment plan to help prevent your condition from getting worse. Your treatment plan may include procedures and surgery to increase the blood supply to your heart, lifestyle changes to target your risk factors and medications.

If your coronary artery disease has led to a heart attack, your healthcare provider can recommend a cardiac rehabilitation program to reduce your risk of future heart problems, regain strength and improve the quality of your life.

It is important to keep all follow-up appointments and have all tests ordered by your healthcare provider. These are needed to keep track of your condition, monitor how well your treatment plan is working and make adjustments if needed.

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Adjustment For Age And Duration

After adjustment for diabetes duration, age was a significant risk factor for CHD, whereas diabetes duration, adjusted for age, was not significantly related to CHD . Age and diabetes duration were highly correlated .

In men and women, baseline age and increased AER levels were significant risk factors for CHD. In addition in men, current smoking, WHR, and raised levels of GHb predicted CHD, whereas in women, raised systolic BP and increased levels of FTG were significantly and positively related to CHD. Of the other complications, autonomic neuropathy and total neuropathy were significantly related to CHD in men, whereas retinopathy was related to CHD in women. Further adjustment for center did not alter these results.

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About Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease can lead to heart attack or stroke. If you think that you are or someone else is having the following symptoms, Every minute matters.

Heart attack

The signs and symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • Prolonged or severe chest pain or discomfort not relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. This involves uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center or left side of the chest that can be mild or strong. This pain or discomfort often lasts more than a few minutes or goes away and comes back.
  • Nausea, vomiting, light-headedness or fainting, or breaking out in a cold sweat. These symptoms of a heart attack are more common in women.
  • Shortness of breath. This may accompany chest discomfort or happen before it.
  • Upper body discomfort.This can be felt in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or upper part of the stomach.

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Literature Search And Study Selection

Two investigators identified articles independently through a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Mar. 5, 2016, and by searching the reference lists of selected articles. The search was restricted to studies involving humans and published in English or Chinese. Details of the search strategy and results are presented in Appendix 2 . There was no protocol for this meta-analysis.

Two investigators independently selected studies using the following criteria: the participants were from the general population or were patients with hypertension or diabetes the exposure of interest was resting heart rate the outcome of interest was coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death, noncardiovascular diseases, all types of cancer or noncardiovascular diseases excluding cancer the study reported relative risks or hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals , with all current results being presented as RRs and the study had a prospective cohort design. If the same data were reported in more than one study, we included the study with the longest follow-up duration.

Understanding Heart Disease And Stroke

Disease does not occur in isolation, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. Cardiovascular health is significantly influenced by the physical, social, and political environment, including:

  • Maternal and child health
  • Availability of healthy foods, physical education, and extracurricular activities in schools
  • Opportunities for physical activity, including access to safe and walkable communities
  • Access to healthy foods
  • Quality of working conditions and worksite health
  • Availability of community support and resources
  • Access to affordable, quality health care

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How Can The Burden Of Cardiovascular Diseases Be Reduced

The key to cardiovascular disease reduction lies in the inclusion of cardiovascular disease management interventions in universal health coverage packages, although in a high number of countries health systems require significant investment and reorientation to effectively manage CVDs.

Evidence from 18 countries has shown that hypertension programmes can be implemented efficiently and cost-effectively at the primary care level which will ultimately result in reduced coronary heart disease and stroke. Patients with cardiovascular disease should have access to appropriate technology and medication. Basic medicines that should be available include:

  • aspirin

Depression And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Risk factors for coronary artery disease | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Studies have shown that people with depression, those who are socially isolated or do not have quality social support are at greater risk of developing CVD.

Depression can be treated with medical and non-medical therapies. If you think you have depression, talking to your health professional is the best first step.

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Heart Disease In The United States

  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men, women, and people of most racial and ethnic groups in the United States.1
  • One person dies every 36 seconds in the United States from cardiovascular disease.1
  • About 655,000 Americans die from heart disease each yearthats 1 in every 4 deaths.2
  • Heart disease costs the United States about $219 billion each year from 2014 to 2015.3 This includes the cost of health care services, medicines, and lost productivity due to death.

Coronary Artery Disease

  • Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing 365,914 people in 2017.4
  • About 18.2 million adults age 20 and older have CAD .3
  • About 2 in 10 deaths from CAD happen in adults less than 65 years old.4

Early Action Is Important for Heart Attack

  • In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 40 seconds.3
  • Every year, about 805,000 Americans have a heart attack.3 Of these,
  • 605,000 are a first heart attack3
  • 200,000 happen to people who have already had a heart attack3
  • About 1 in 5 heart attacks is silentthe damage is done, but the person is not aware of it.3

Who Should Be Treated To Reduce Their Cardiovascular Health Risk

Treatment to reduce the risk of developing a cardiovascular disease is usually offered to people with a moderate or high risk. That is:

  • People with a risk assessment score of 10% or more. That is, if you have a 1 in 10 chance or more of developing a cardiovascular disease within the following 10 years.
  • People with an existing cardiovascular disease .
  • People with diabetes. If you have diabetes, the time that treatment is started to reduce cardiovascular risk depends on factors such as:
    • Your age.
    • How long you have had diabetes.
    • Your blood pressure.
    • Whether you have any complications of diabetes.
    • Whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Almost all people with type 1 diabetes, and most with type 2, are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • People with certain kidney disorders.

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What Are The Risks For Coronary Artery Disease

Overweight, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and smoking tobacco are risk factors for CAD. A family history of heart disease also increases your risk for CAD, especially a family history of having heart disease at an early age .

To find out your risk for CAD, your health care team may measure your blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels.

Learn more about heart disease risk factors.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Faqs

Group 3: CAD and CHF

Q: What are heart disease risk factors?A: Risk factors for heart disease and other cardiovascular disease include:

  • Smoking
  • High LDL or low HDL cholesterol levels
  • Family history of heart disease or other cardiovascular disease
  • Age
  • Ethnicity

Q: Can stress cause heart disease?A: The link between stress and cardiovascular disease is not well understood. However, it is known that stress can influence many of the well-established risk factors for CVD, including high blood pressure, smoking, lack of exercise, eating an unhealthy diet and drinking large amounts of alcohol. In addition, it is thought that stress in the form of job strain and long working hours may somewhat increase a personâs risk of cardiovascular disease.

Q: Where can I do a CVD risk factor assessment or screening?A: While various cardiovascular disease risk factor calculators and assessment tools exist online, the only way to obtain an accurate understanding of a particular personâs risk is by seeing a licensed doctor.

Q: How can I reduce heart disease risk factors?A: General recommendations include eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise as part of a balanced lifestyle, as well as avoiding tobacco products and limiting alcohol intake. Furthermore, managing obesity as well as conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes, with the help of a doctor, is important.

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Cholesterol And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced naturally by your body . It is used for many different things in your body but is a problem when thereâs too much of it in your blood.

High total cholesterol causes fatty material to gradually build up in your bodyâs arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. It is mainly caused by eating foods high in saturated fats and trans fats.

Your total cholesterol includes two types of cholesterol, which are:

  • Low-density lipoprotein â also known as âbadâ cholesterol because it can add to the build-up of plaque in your arteries and increase your risk of heart attack and stroke.
  • High-density lipoprotein is also known as âgoodâ cholesterol because it helps to protect you against heart attack and stroke.

Most of the total cholesterol in your blood is made up of âbadâ LDL cholesterol. Only a small part is made up of âgoodâ HDL cholesterol.

You should aim for low LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol on advice from your doctor. If you are having trouble with your cholesterol levels, a dietitian can help you to eat healthily for your specific needs.

Being Overweight And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Being overweight or obese increases your risk of a number of health problems, including:

Carrying extra weight around your middle is more of a health risk, so it is especially important for you to lose weight if this is the case.

To achieve a healthy body weight, balance the energy coming into your body through food and drinks, with the energy being used up by your body through regular physical activity.

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What Is Rheumatic Heart Disease

Rheumatic heart disease is caused by damage to the heart valves and heart muscle from the inflammation and scarring caused by rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal response of the body to infection with streptococcal bacteria, which usually begins as a sore throat or tonsillitis in children.

Rheumatic fever mostly affects children in developing countries, especially where poverty is widespread. Globally, about 2% of deaths from cardiovascular diseases are related to rheumatic heart disease.

Problems Affecting The Blood Vessels

What Are Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors? Dr. Kahlon

Problems with how the hearts blood vessels work can cause coronary heart disease. For example, the blood vessels may not respond to signals that the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. Normally, the blood vessels widen to allow more blood flow when a person is physically active or under stress. But if you have coronary heart disease, the size of these blood vessels may not change, or the blood vessels may even narrow.

The cause of these problems is not fully clear. But it may involve:

  • Damage or injury to the walls of the arteries or tiny blood vessels from chronic inflammation, high blood pressure, or diabetes.
  • Molecular changes that are part of the normal aging process. Molecular changes affect the way genes and proteins are controlled inside cells.

In nonobstructive coronary artery disease, damage to the inner walls of the coronary arteries can cause them to spasm . This is called vasospasm. The spasm causes the arteries to narrow temporarily and blocks blood flow to the heart.

These problems can also happen in the tiny blood vessels in the heart, causing coronary microvascular disease . Coronary microvascular disease can happen with or without obstructive or nonobstructive coronary artery disease.

Learn more about the important role that inflammation, which is the bodys reaction to an injury, plays in the development of coronary heart disease.

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Obesity Other Factors May Speed Up Brain Aging

The brains of middle-age adults may be aging prematurely if they have obesity or other factors linked to cardiovascular disease. Almost one-quarter of adults have metabolic syndrome, a set of factors that in combination amplify a person’s risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke and other illnesses. In the new research, participants were considered metabolically unhealthy if they had two or more such factors: high blood pressure high blood sugar high blood triglyceride levels or low levels of HDL, the “good” cholesterol or if they took medicine for diabetes, high blood pressure or cholesterol.

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

People with diabetes are at greater risk of heart attack, angina and stroke. Similarly, people with CVD are generally prone to diabetes. For people with both diseases, the risk of heart attack and stroke is higher than for those without them.

The reported increase in diabetes in Australia is thought to be associated with more people being physically inactive, unhealthy eating habits and being overweight. The two main types of diabetes are:

  • Type 1â previously known as insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset diabetes.
  • Type 2â previously known as non-insulin-dependent or mature-onset diabetes.

If you have diabetes, manage your condition by being physically active, choosing healthy foods and maintaining a healthy weight. You may also need to take medicines to maintain normal blood-glucose levels, as well as making lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking. Manage your health by reducing total cholesterol, monitoring blood pressure and regularly seeing your doctor for diabetes reviews.

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What Behaviors Increase The Risk Of Heart Disease

Your lifestyle can increase your risk for heart disease.

  • Eating a diet high in saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol has been linked to heart disease and related conditions, such as atherosclerosis. Also, too much salt in the diet can raise blood pressure.
  • Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease. It can also increase the chances of having other medical conditions that are risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Regular physical activity can lower your risk for heart disease.
  • Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure levels and the risk for heart disease. It also increases levels of triglycerides, a fatty substance in the blood which can increase the risk for heart disease.
  • Women should have no more than 1 drink a day.
  • Men should have no more than 2 drinks a day.
  • Tobacco use increases the risk for heart disease and heart attack:
  • Cigarette smoking can damage the heart and blood vessels, which increases your risk for heart conditions such as atherosclerosis and heart attack.
  • Nicotine raises blood pressure.
  • What Are The Heart Disease Risk Factors That I Cannot Change

    Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease and Acute Myocardial ...
    • Age. Your risk of heart disease increases as you get older. Men age 45 and older and women age 55 and older have a greater risk.
    • Sex. Some risk factors may affect heart disease risk differently in women than in men. For example, estrogen provides women some protection against heart disease, but diabetes raises the risk of heart disease more in women than in men.
    • Race or ethnicity. Certain groups have higher risks than others. African Americans are more likely than whites to have heart disease, while Hispanic Americans are less likely to have it. Some Asian groups, such as East Asians, have lower rates, but South Asians have higher rates.
    • Family history. You have a greater risk if you have a close family member who had heart disease at an early age.

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