What Is A Heartbeat
A heartbeat is a duration taken for your heart to be filled with blood and contracts to pump it to your body. Medically, the speed of your heartbeat is referred to as heath rate. Therefore, heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute.
According to the American Heart Association, all things being equal, the normal heart rate of every adult is 60-100 bpm. Heart rate above 100bpm is known as tachycardia and heart rate below 60 is known as arrhythmia.
So during exercise, the heart does more work than when the body is at rest. The heart pumps blood faster than normal thereby increasing the heartbeat. Increase in heartbeat leads to an increase in heart rate
Exercise Intensity: What Happens When We Go All Out
Muscle cells require two key ingredients to function: fuel and oxygen.
Muscles rely heavily on blood vessels to deliver the necessary nutrients and oxygen around the body, and also to remove by-products such as carbon dioxide.
The more muscles used in exercise, the more blood is distributed towards the active tissues.
When the intensity of the exercise is particularly high, the muscles start to produce another by-product called lactate.
Cells can also use lactate as a fuel although if production rate exceeds metabolism, lactate starts to accumulate and can interfere with cellular function.
The point at which this by-product starts to accumulate is termed the lactate threshold.
Any exercise intensity that can be comfortably sustained is usually below this threshold, and will have an accompanying heart rate. As it is much easier to measure heart rate than lactate production, heart rate can be used as a surrogate measure of exercise intensity.
Heart Rate And Exercise
Literature ReviewThe human heart is a very complicated organ, with the main purpose to pump life sustaining blood throughout the human body. It also supplies oxygen and nutrients to all areas and clears harmful waste from the body. The heart is made up of cardiac muscle which beats on its own. According to the article heart which was written by The National Geographic the heart will slow down or speed up depending on how the body is being used. This is done by nerve signals which are being
Recommended Reading: How To Stop Heart Palpitations Due To Anxiety
How It Changes With Age
As you get older, your maximum heart rate will start to decline.
“Someone who is 70 might have a maximum heart rate of 130 or so, whereas someone who is young, fit and active in their 20s might be able to get to 200,” Professor Jennings says.
“It’s partly because as you get older, your muscles can’t get you to the same level of activity and it’s partly because the heart itself doesn’t function the same with ageing.
“Like the rest of the body, it gets a bit stiffer, and therefore you don’t get to the same level of exercise or heart rate.”
Mr Rooney says for most people, instead of focusing on their heart rate, the important thing is to mix up their exercise regime so that it feels “fresh, interesting, and so they don’t get bored”.
“If you’re someone who wants to exercise and do something that’s beneficial, it’s more important that you enjoy what you’re doing.”
If you have concerns about your heart rate, it’s a good idea to see your GP. For more information on heart health, visit the Heart Foundation.
Athlete Resting Heart Rate
An athletes resting heart rate may be considered low when compared to the general population. A young, healthy athlete may have a heart rate of 30 to 40 bpm.
Thats likely because exercise strengthens the heart muscle. It allows it to pump a greater amount of blood with each heartbeat. More oxygen is also going to the muscles.
This means the heart beats fewer times per minute than it would in a nonathlete. However, an athletes heart rate may go up to 180 bpm to 200 bpm during exercise.
Resting heart rates vary for everyone, including athletes. Some factors that could influence it include:
- air temperature
Don’t Miss: What Does Heart Rate Mean
How To Determine Your Ideal Resting Heart Rate
Well-trained athletes may have a resting heart rate between 30 and 40 bpm. But everyones heart rate is different. Theres no ideal resting heart rate, even though a lower resting heart rate may mean youre more fit.
You can measure your resting heart rate at home. Take your resting heart rate by checking your pulse first thing in the morning.
- gently press the tips of your index and middle finger over the lateral part of your wrist, just below the thumb side of your hand
- count the beats for a full minute
Using Exercise To Tune Up Your Cardiovascular Health
If we compare a persons initial fitness response to testing, to responses three to six months later, we see progress, says Dr. Stewart. The oxygen consumption will be higher. The time on the treadmill will be longer. The heart rate and blood pressure will be lower. Its like tuning up your engine. Only the engine is your heart and the bodys circulatory system for distributing blood, and its working more efficiently.
Johns Hopkins Women’s Cardiovascular Health Center
The Johns Hopkins Womens Cardiovascular Health Center provides education, comprehensive treatment and diagnostic services to prevent and manage heart disease in women.
You May Like: Why Does Your Heart Rate Go Up When You Exercise
Sweaty Science: How Does Heart Rate Change With Exercise
A physical pursuit from Science Buddies
IntroductionHave you ever wondered how many times your heart beats in a day, a month, a yearor will beat in total throughout your life? Over an average lifetime, the human heart beats more than 2.5 billion times. For a person to keep their heart healthy, they should eat right, not smoke and get regular exercise. In this science activity, you’ll measure your heart rate during different types of physical activities to find out which gives your heart the best workout to help keep it fit.
BackgroundA 150-pound adult has about 5.5 liters of blood on average, which the heart circulates about three times every minute. A person’s heart is continuously beating to keep the blood circulating. Heart health experts say that the best ways to keep our hearts healthy is through a balanced diet, avoiding smoking and regular exercise.;
Materials Clock or timer that shows seconds or a helper with a watch Comfortable exercise clothes Simple and fun exercise equipment, such as a jump rope, bicycle, hula-hoop, two-pound weight, etc. Alternatively you can do exercises that do not require equipment, such as walking, doing jumping jacks, jogging in place, etc. You will want to do at least two different types of exercises, both of which you can sustain for 15 minutes. ; Calculator
More to explore
Cardiac Output Heart Rate And Stroke Volume Responses:
Cardiac output refers to the total quantity of blood that is ejected by the heart and is usually measured in litres per minute.; Heart rate refers to how often the heart beats and is also meaured per minute.; Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood that is ejected by the heart with each beat.; So cardiac output is quite simply the product of heart rate and stroke volume.
Heart rate increases in a linear fashion to increases in the intensity of exercise.; This is illustrated in the adjacent graph, showing how the heart rate increases to match the incremental demands of walking, jogging and running.
It is also worth noting that heart rates start to rise prior to any type of exercise just the thought of exercise is enough to trigger a heart rate response.;
This initial response serves simply to prepare the body for activity and is controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Stroke volumes also rise as a person starts to exercise and continue to rise as the intensity of the activity increases.; This is shown in the adjacent stroke volume graph as the increases between standing, walking and jogging.; This increase is primarily due to a greater volume of blood returning to the heart.
The increase in stroke volume only continues up to a point however.; Once the intensity of the exercise exceeds 50-60% of an individuals maximum heart rate their stroke volume ceases to rise, as shown on the graph as the similar stroke volumes for jogging and running.;
Also Check: How Do You Calculate Heart Rate
Characteristics Of The Population
The characteristics of the study population are summarized in Table;. The mean ages were 26 and 29 years in trained and sedentary males and 28 and 27 in trained and sedentary women, respectively. Age did not differ between trained and non-trained subjects. Mean weight, body mass index , and body surface index were significantly greater in men than in women, they were not different within gender or between trained and non-trained subjects. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was similar in trained and non-trained subjects and no gender differences were observed. The prevalence of use of oestro-progestinics was similar in trained and non-trained women. Trained subjects had a higher degree of physical activity, expressed with the IPAQ score, than sedentary controls in both genders . No differences in physical activity were found between control females and control males , while the score of trained females was lower than that of trained males .
How Does Running Affect Your Heart Rate
During cardio exercise such as running, your heart rate increases. Your heart rate while running can be a good measurement of how hard youre working. As your pace and work rate increase, so does your heart rate. Blood circulates to your muscles so they can get the oxygen and nutrients they need to keep going.
You May Like: How To Lower My Resting Heart Rate
How Can I Strengthen My Lungs For Running
The Lung Institute recommends 30 minutes of moderate exercise five times a week to improve lung capacity. Moderate exercise includes brisk walking as well as running, jogging, and other cardiovascular activities. In fact, regular workouts can increase the amount of air you can take into your lungs by 5 to 15 percent.
Effects Of Exercise On Blood Pressure
Aerobic activities such as swimming, cycling, and running put additional demands on your cardiovascular system. Your muscles need more oxygen than they do when youre at rest, so you have to breathe more quickly.
Your heart starts to pump harder and faster to circulate blood to deliver oxygen to your muscles. As a result, systolic blood pressure rises.
Its normal for systolic blood pressure to rise to between 160 and 220 mm Hg during exercise. Unless youve cleared it with your doctor, stop exercising if your systolic blood pressure surpasses 200 mm Hg. Beyond 220 mm Hg, your risk of a heart problem increases.
Different factors can influence how your cardiovascular system responds to exercise. Some of these factors include diet, medical conditions, and medications.
For instance, exercise hypertension is a condition that causes an extreme spike in blood pressure during physical activity. People with exercise hypertension can experience spikes in systolic blood pressure up to 250 mm Hg during exercise.
In general, your blood pressure should return to normal within several hours of a workout. Even then, you might notice that your blood pressure doesnt return to exactly what it was before exercise. Thats because its normal for blood pressure to drop slightly within a few hours of exercise.
Don’t Miss: What Causes Heart Rate To Spike
Possible Mechanisms Of The Heart Rate
Bahrainy et al. suggest that neither an increase in resting parasympathetic tone nor a decrease in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation contribute to the decrease in RHR after regular exercise or physical activity in humans. The effect may be due to a decrease in the intrinsic heart rate via mechanisms which have not yet been fully understood. In the case of yoga, lower RHR may also be caused by an enhanced parasympathetic output .
Understanding The Effects On Your Health
There are many factors to consider if your heart rate is suddenly increasing. Its important to first think about your lifestyle habits.
- You arent drinking enough water. When you are dehydrated, your heart will beat faster. Even if you are relaxed, you might need to increase your fluid intake. Stay hydrated!
- You might be getting sick. A high heart rate can mean you are developing a fever. When your body temperature elevates, so does your heart rate. Check your temperature and make sure to get plenty of rest.
- You had a little too much caffeine. A large amount of caffeine can seriously increase your heart rate. Sleep deprivation can also affect your heart rate. Excessive fatigue can lead to decreased performance, moodiness, and overuse of stimulants such as caffeine.
- If you take medication, recording your heart rate daily and reporting the results to your doctor can help them learn whether your treatment is working.
Your heart rate can also tell you which diseases you are at risk of.
Also Check: What Branch Of Medicine Deals With Heart Disease
Measuring Your Heart Rate By Taking Your Pulse
- Take your pulse before you warm up.
- Take your pulse again when youve been exercising for about 5-10 minutes.
- Continue taking your pulse at regular intervals.
- Put the first three fingers of one hand against the inner wrist of the other hand just below the thumb.
- Lightly press your fingers into the hollow next to the tendon on the thumb-side your artery lies just beneath the skin.
- Using a watch with a second hand, count your pulse for 15 seconds. Multiply this figure by four to get your beats per minute.
What The Results Mean
A prolonged elevated heart rate after exercise, as confirmed by a slow heart rate recovery, suggests you may be at higher risk of metabolic syndrome or heart problems, but factors like dehydration, excessive fatigue, and stress can affect the results too.
If you measure your heart rate recovery, make sure youre well-rested and are drinking enough liquids beforehand. The first thing in the morning isnt a good time since most people wake up mildly dehydrated and that will slow heart rate recovery.
Also, certain medications, like beta-blockers, can affect the results and give you an unreliable reading. Still, its a useful test you can do at home that says something about your future health risks.
Its best to do the test several times on different days and average the values. Also, recheck your recovery heart rate every few months and record the value. As you become fitter, how fast your heart rate recovers should improve.
Also Check: Heart Rate When Having A Heart Attack
Target Heart Rates Chart
What should your heart rate be when working out, and how can you keep track of it? Our simple chart will help keep you in the target training zone, whether you want to lose weight or just maximize your workout. Find out what normal resting and maximum heart rates are for your age and how exercise intensity and other factors affect heart rate.
Health: Heart Disease Essay Example
How much does my heart rate change after running in place for 10 minutes?IntroductionThe leading cause of death in the US is heart disease and the fourth leading cause of death in the US is stroke. Both are related to the heart. Both can be prevented by engaging in exercise. Among the other leading causes of death is diabetes, which is related to being obese . Exercise can reduce the chance of becoming diabetic and is also important
Read Also: How To Calculate Resting Heart Rate
Heart Rate Response To Aerobic Training
If the intensity of the exercise remains constant then the heart rate will rise until it reaches what is known as steady state where it stays relatively constant as the cardiovascular system meets the demands placed on it by the exercise.
Achieving steady state is the goal of many aerobic fitness training programmes training at a set intensity for a prolonged period of time.
Steady state is illustrated on the adjacent graph at the point where the heart rate flattens after an initial rise in the first few minutes of exercise.; For steady state to be achieved and maintained the intensity of the exercise must remain constant.
The graph also shows how heart rates return to resting levels after exercise finishes.; The more intense the exercise is the longer it will take for heart rate to return to its resting rate.;
With low-moderate intensity aerobic fitness training heart rates return to normal within 10-20 minutes.; Stroke volume returns to resting levels in an identical fashion.
If the intensity of the exercise fluctuates then heart rates will also fluctuate.; We see this where work periods of high intensity exercise are interspersed with periods of lower intensity exercise.; As the intensity increases so does the heart rate and as the intensity drops so does the heart rate.;
The following graph shows how a persons heart rate fluctuates throughout an 11 mile run encompassing a variety of terrain.;
Qt Interval Qt Interval Variability And Qt/rr Relationship
The mean QT interval corrected for heart rate was longer in females than in males in both trained and non-trained subjects .
The effects of exercise training on QT interval in men and women were different. While mean 24h QTc was similar in trained and non-trained men a difference was observed between trained and non-trained women. In fact, trained women showed a shorter QTc than sedentary women during the 24h period , during wakefulness and during sleep . Nevertheless, the test for interaction between training and gender was not significant, P = 0.563.
Twenty-four hour QTc variability did not differ between men and women, both trained and non-trained, while the circadian variation of QTc was greater in men than in women both in not-trained subjects and in trained subjects . Exercise training did not affect the variability of QT interval or the circadian variation of QT interval.
Gender differences in the relationship between QT and RR interval were observed in both trained and non-trained subjects. In fact, the slope of the QT/RR regression line was steeper in females than in males in both groups, in agreement with previous findings.
Examples of QT/RR relationship. r: correlation coefficient.