Primordial Prevention: How Early Is Early Enough
Heart experts always thought about primary and secondary prevention when it comes to heart attacks, Dr. Laffin says. Thats trying to prevent the first heart attack and then trying to prevent the second heart attack.
But recently, theres been a shift to the idea of primordial prevention. This means trying to prevent the progression of the heart attack risk factors themselves. Dr. Laffin says it includes trying to change the social and environmental conditions that could develop and progress risk factors. These are things we have control over such as exercising, eating nutritious foods, not smoking, managing stress and blood pressure.
Primordial prevention also includes education about whatbehaviors put you at risk for cardiovascular disease. These include:
- Poor diet and lack of exercise.
- Type 2 diabetes.
- Family history of cardiovascular disease.
Reasons For Heart Attack
Excess cholesterol and fat can build up in the coronary arteries, vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood flow. This can cause them to become narrow. In medical term, this process is known as atherosclerosis and the build-up is called plaque. When such a plaque within a coronary artery breaks, a blood clot can be formed around it. This blood clot can cause blockage in the blood flow through the blood vessel to the heart muscle, leading to oxygen and nutrient scarcity. Due to this, a part of the heart muscle can get damaged, causing a heart attack.
So, make sure to get a lipid profile test done to keep a check on your cholesterol levels.
Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is now recognized as an important cause of heart attack and sudden death in young women, as well as men without other risk factors for atherosclerosis. In this syndrome, there is a spontaneous tearing of the coronary artery wall, which blocks blood flow to the heart muscle. It may be the cause of up to 35% of myocardial infarctions in women 50 and under, as well as the most common cause of myocardial infarction associated with pregnancy.
The underlying causes of SCAD are still theoretical. Those with the condition do not have atherosclerosis, but may have a condition called fibromuscular dysplasia in which there is abnormal growth of cells in the arteries. Hormonal factors, inflammatory conditions, and environmental and genetic factors may be involved as well.
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Heart Attack In Young People: Symptoms Like Central Chest Discomfort Breathlessness Sweating Or Persistent Uneasiness Should Not Be Ignored And Be Further Evaluated By Ecg Echocardiogram Or A Stress Test
Heart Attack in Young Adults: Heart attacks and cardiac arrest are on the rise among young people in India with 25 % of all cases under 40 years and not even sparing those between 20 to 30 years of age. The main culprits are an unhealthy sedentary lifestyle, unawareness and inertia on the part of the patient or family for ignoring early symptoms causing delays in getting evidence-based management. Heart problems are never at rest, you should definitely made sedentary changes in your lifestyle.Also Read – Heart Attack Vs Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Experts Explain The Recent Surge In Cases, Deaths. All You Need to Know
A heart attack occurs when an artery supplying blood to our heart gets totally occluded by a clot forming over already existing cholesterol plaque or in some cases by only a blood clot, especially in smokers. Only 25 % of patients reach a well-equipped hospital within the golden first hour, with delays causing irreversible heart damage. Indians are particularly prone to heart attacks due to genetic predisposition, small heart vessels, high bad cholesterol , low good cholesterol , early diabetes, obesity especially central fat deposition, high blood pressure, and smoking made worse further by smoking, stress, inactivity and bad food choices with high intake of fats, sugars and salt. Also Read – Shocking: Dancer Dies of Heart Attack After Collapsing Midway During Performance in Jammu | Caught on Camera
Head Start To Heart Disease
To study the origins of atherosclerosis, scientists from 15 medical centers formed the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth research group. Over a 7-year period, they investigated cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in 2,876 people between the ages of 15 and 34 about three-quarters were male. All were victims of accidents, homicides, or suicides who had been autopsied shortly after death. The researchers looked for evidence of atherosclerosis, reviewed the victims’ medical records, and analyzed blood specimens to measure cholesterol levels and detect thiocyanate, a chemical indicator of smoking.
The results were striking, particularly for the male subjects. Fatty streaks of atherosclerosis were identified in coronary arteries as early as age 15 and became progressively more prevalent over the 20-year age span covered by the study. In all, about 2% of the youngest males and 8% of the oldest had evidence of coronary artery disease. As expected, subjects who’d had the highest LDL cholesterol levels, lowest HDL cholesterol levels, highest blood pressures, and highest blood sugars had the most disease. Even in these adolescents and young adults, smoking and obesity also increased the risk of atherosclerosis.
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Why Heart Attacks Among Young People Are On The Rise
The total number of heart attacks in the United States is lower than ever before but so is the age group its hitting hardest. Today, the elderly no longer hold a monopoly on cardiac arrest, as there are more heart attacks reported in young adults under the age of 40.
Multiple factors contribute to this trend, and understanding the causes can help you protect your health and prevent cardiovascular disease. Stress, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and a poor diet all lead to conditions that affect your heart health. At Advanced Cardiac Care located in the Ozone Park area of Queens, New York, we specialize in assessing your risk and developing a long-range plan to help you beat the statistics and prevent a heart attack.
Youngest Heart Attack Survivors Have Same Likelihood Of Dying As Survivors 10+ Years Older Substance Abuse May Be Contributing To Trend
Contact: Nicole Napoli, [email protected], 202-375-6523
Even though fewer heart attacks are occurring in the U.S.in large part due to the use of medications like statins and a decline in smokingthese events are steadily rising in very young adults. New data not only validate this trend but also reveal that more heart attacks are striking those under age 40, according to research being presented at the American College of Cardiologys 68th Annual Scientific Session.
The study, which is the first to compare young to very young heart attack survivors, found that among patients who suffer a heart attack at a young age overall, 1 in 5 is 40 or younger. Moreover, during the 16-year study period , the proportion of very young people having a heart attack has been increasing, rising by 2 percent each year for the last 10 years.
It used to be incredibly rare to see anyone under age 40 come in with a heart attackand some of these people are now in their 20s and early 30s, said Ron Blankstein, MD, a preventive cardiologist at Brigham and Womens Hospital, associate professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston and the studys senior author. Based on what we are seeing, it seems that we are moving in the wrong direction.
Also, despite being 10 years younger on average than those having heart attacks in their 40s, very young patients have the same rate of adverse outcomes, including dying from another heart attack, stroke or any other reason.
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The Biggest Thing Here Prevention
At the end of the day, its important to understand whatyour risk factors are high blood pressure, waist circumference, unhealthy BMI and work to correct them early.
Whatever we can do early on, the better, says Dr. Laffin.We need to set good habits for ourselves and for our children, especially withhow childhood obesity will come into play with this.
The dramatic increase of young adults having heart attacks is evidence, he says, that our lifestyles need to change.
Not enough young people take their risk factors seriously, warns Dr. Laffin. But we need to be aggressive about risk factor modification, or the heart attack rate in young people is going to keep climbing.
Symptoms Are The Tip Of The Iceberg
Once a heart attack occurs, its like the tip of an iceberg and a sign that theres likely to be underlying heart disease, Associate Professor Jepson says.
Symptoms often start to occur later in the disease process. For example we often find that there has been a steady build-up of plaque in the coronary arteries over time long before we see signs and symptoms.
Even young, healthy people can have evidence of early plaque on their arteries, putting them at risk of having a heart attack in the next five to 10 years, Associate Professor Jepson says.
If we can catch disease in the arteries earlier, we can prevent sudden heart attacks, he said.
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Heart Problems In Teens
Signs of heart disease in teens are similar to those in younger kids. Usually, teens who are active in sports will have already undergone a physical exam with their pediatrician that included questions to try and help capture potential heart problems early. However, if your teen athlete complains of chest pain or any other heart symptoms during activity, consider scheduling a screening and evaluation by a pediatric cardiologist.
Healthcovid Cases Are Rising Among Teens Schools Are Stepping Up To Vaccinate Them
Myocarditis is condition that involves inflammation of the heart muscle. Symptoms can include fever and fatigue, as well as shortness of breath and a very specific type of chest pain. Patients tend to say their chest hurts more when they lean forward. The pain tends to abate when they lean back.
When needed, treatment may involve anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, and in some cases, an intravenous medication called IVIG.
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Generally, children who have myocarditis will follow up with a cardiologist for about six months to make sure there are no other significant problems. Most cases are generally mild and go away on their own.
Vaccine safety experts are always on the lookout for a range of possible side effects following any new vaccine. Despite the increased number of reported myocarditis cases among young people, Shimabukuro said, no major red flags have been identified.
Still, the higher-than-normal incidence is worthy of further scrutiny. The CDC will hold a meeting of its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on June 18 to further look at the evidence and assess the risk of myocarditis following vaccination.
Until definitive links are made, health officials overwhelmingly recommend Covid-19 vaccinations for everyone ages 12 and older.
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How To Reduce The Risk Of Heart Attacks In Young People
We can all keep our hearts healthy by making positive healthy lifestyle changes, such as:
- exercising regularly
- managing stress
- getting regular heart health checks
Prevention is important to reduce your risk of heart disease, but you may still be at risk even if you have a healthy lifestyle. Thats where an annual heart health check can help detect heart disease early.
Do This In The Case Of An Emergency
Many people do not understand that they have had a heart attack. At that time they feel discomfort, gassiness or bone pain. When early signs like this occur and you don’t get necessary tests done, it can make it worse. At the same time, some people also get silent heart attack, in which there is no pain. Especially in diabetic patients or in older women.
If someone near you has a heart attack,
Give them an Aspirin tablet to chew
Give them a statin tablet
Give them Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Go to the nearest hospital immediately
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Dr Shriram Nene Explains The Causes Risks & How To Prevent A Heart Attack
Dr Shriram Nene shared a link to his Youtube video, from May 21, 2022, where he has explained the causes of heart attack and what to do when one is lacking time.” He discussed ‘the risk factors of heart diseases, what are the symptoms, how you treat it, how do you avoid it and more’. Dr Nene stated, “Although heart attacks and cardiac arrest have remained major health concerns around the world, a growing number of cardiovascular diseases have been diagnosed and reported among the younger population in recent years.”
What Can Cause A Heart Attack In A Child Or Teenager
Heart attacks in teenagers are extremely rare. Sudden cardiac arrest in teens is more common but still rare. Although people often use these two terms interchangeably, they dont mean the same thing.
Heart attacks occur when blood to the heart is suddenly stopped, usually due to coronary artery disease. Your arteries become blocked, so not enough blood can make it to your heart.
Sudden cardiac arrest is when your heart stops pumping blood effectively. Blood cant get to important organs in your body, like your brain and lungs.
Teens can experience a heart attack or cardiac arrest for many of the same reasons as adults.
But lifestyle factors tend to be a lesser cause just because they havent had as much time to cause damage in teens. In adults, things like smoking, a lack of exercise, high cholesterol, and other factors build up over decades to reduce heart function.
In teens and young adults, congenital, electrical, or structural problems are more often the cause. Examples of these issues include things like:
- anomalous aortic origin of the coronary artery
- catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
- arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
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Adults Need Shots Too: Find Out Which Vaccines Are Important For Heart Health
While most parents are good at keeping track of vaccines kids need to stay healthy, many people don’t realize there are immunizations important to keeping adults heart-healthy, as well. The American Heart Association urges all adults, especially those already with a history of heart disease or stroke, to take a look at their immunization status, and stay up-to-date on preventive vaccines, particularly for flu and COVID-19.
“Getting an annual flu shot should be part of routine health care for all individuals and especially for people who are already living with chronic health conditions that put them at higher risk for heart attacks or strokes,” said Eduardo Sanchez, M.D., M.P.H., FAHA, American Heart Association chief medical officer for prevention. “The potentially serious complications of the flu are far, far greater for those with chronic diseases. This is true not just for older people but even those age 50 and younger who have a history of high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes. Most adults can get a flu vaccine at no out-of-pocket cost at a local pharmacy or through their local health department.”
While flu and COVID-19 vaccines are of the utmost importance, there are also several other immunizations that can help keep people heart-healthy.
The Prevention Of Heart And Vascular Disease Program
The Prevention of Heart and Vascular Disease Program at Brigham Healths Heart & Vascular Center is a world leader in treating high cholesterol and other risk factors that contribute to the development of heart and vascular disease. To make an appointment, please request an appointment online or call 307-4000.
Ron Blankstein, MD, is a preventative cardiology specialist and Associate Director of the Cardiovascular Imaging Program at Brigham Health.
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Do Hormones Affect Your Risk Of A Heart Attack
Many women use prescription hormone drugs for birth control or for reducingsymptoms of menopause . Could thesedrugs jeopardize your heart health?
“Birth control pills can increase your risk of having a blood clot, eitherin the heart or in the legs, and they can also raise your blood pressure.So, if you have a history of high blood pressure or clotting problems,other types of contraception might be a better fit for you,” says Colliver.”But for most young women, it’s safe to take birth control medication.”
Colliver notes that women over the age of 50 are at an increased risk forheart disease and should completely avoid estrogen and progesterone drugs,if possible. “If your overall risk of heart attack is extremely low and youdesperately need relief from hot flashes and other postmenopausal symptoms,then hormone replacement therapy may be fine for you,” says Colliver. “Butafter the age of 65, we really try to avoid using them at all because theydo increase the risk of heart disease and potentially breast cancer.”
Researchers Say 7 Factors Drive Most Heart Attacks In Young Adultsespecially In Women
- The proportion of heart attacks in young women is increasing.
- Researchers have found the top risk factors for young women to develop a heart attack.
- Modifying these risk factors should lower your overall risk of heart attack.
New research has identified risk factors that are the most likely to trigger a heart attack, also known as an acute myocardial infarction , for men and women aged 55 and under. The study also teased out important sex differences in risk factors associated with heart attacks.
The study, which was published in JAMA Network Open, analyzed data from 2,264 patients between the ages of 18 and 55 with heart attacks, along with 2,264 people from a control group.
The researchers found that young men and women typically have different risk factors for heart attacks.
An increasing proportion of people in the U.S. hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction are younger than 55 years, with the largest increase in young women, the researchers wrote. Effective prevention requires an understanding of risk factors associated with risk of AMI in young women compared with men.
Lead study author Yuan Lu, ScD, assistant professor of cardiovascular medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, told Verywell that the overall risk of heart attack in young people is generally low. However, she added, incidents in young women are increasing and they have a worse prognosis.
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