What Are The Types Of Heart Failure
There are many causes of heart failure, but the condition is generally broken down into these types:
Left-sided heart failure
Heart failure with reduced left ventricular function The lower left chamber of your heart gets bigger and cannot squeeze hard enough to pump the right amount of oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body.
Heart failure with preserved left ventricular function Your heart contracts and pumps normally, but the bottom chambers of your heart are thicker and stiffer than normal. Because of this, your ventricles can’t relax properly and fill up all the way. Because there’s less blood in your ventricles, your heart pumps out less blood to the rest of your body when it contracts.
Right-sided heart failure
Heart failure can also affect the right side of your heart. Left-sided heart failure is the most common cause of this. Other causes include certain lung problems and issues in other organs.
How Is Heart Failure Treated
Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and, in part, what caused it. Medications and lifestyle behaviors are part of every treatment plan. Your healthcare provider will talk to you about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment is the same, regardless of gender.
As heart failure gets worse, your heart muscle pumps less blood to your organs, and you move toward the next stage of heart failure. Since you cant move backward through the heart failure stages, the goal of treatment is to keep you from moving forward through the stages or to slow down the progression of your heart failure.
Stage A treatment
The usual treatment plan for people with Stage A heart failure includes:
- Regular exercise, being active, walking every day.
- Stopping the use of tobacco products.
- Treatment for high blood pressure .
- Treatment for high cholesterol.
- Not drinking alcohol or using recreational drugs.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker if you have coronary artery disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or other vascular or cardiac conditions.
- Beta-blocker if you have high blood pressure.
Stage B treatment
The usual treatment plan for people with Stage B heart failure includes:
Stage C treatment
The usual treatment plan for people with Stage C HF-rEF includes:
If the treatment causes your symptoms to get better or stop, you still need to continue treatment to slow the progression to Stage D.
Stage D treatment
Heart Failure Signs And Symptoms
By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But if you have more than one of these symptoms, even if you haven’t been diagnosed with any heart problems, report them to a healthcare professional and ask for an evaluation of your heart. Congestive heart failure is a type of heart failure which requires seeking timely medical attention, although sometimes the two terms are used interchangeably.
This table lists the most common signs and symptoms, explains why they occur and describes how to recognize them.
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Symptom Prevalence And Frequency
Symptom prevalence was the total number of symptoms a patient endorsed with a possible maximum of 32 using the MSAS-HF. The frequency of a symptom was the percentage of participants from the sample who experienced that specific symptom. Using the MSAS-HF, patients can report from 0 to 32 symptoms, and the mean number of symptoms experienced per patient was 12.1 . Lack of energy, dry mouth, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling of arms or legs, pain other than chest pain, and feeling drowsy were reported by more than half of the patients . The least reported symptoms were problems with urination, diarrhea, problems with sexual interest or activity, vomiting and weight gain. A significant correlation was found between age and the total number of MSAS-HF symptoms endorsed . Time since diagnosis of heart failure and patient age were moderately correlated .
What Is The Outlook With Heart Failure
With the right care, congestive heart failure wont stop you from doing the things you enjoy. Your prognosis, or outlook for the future, will depend on:
- How well your heart muscle is working.
- Your symptoms.
- How well you respond to your treatment plan.
- How well you follow your treatment plan.
One study says that people with heart failure have a life span 10 years shorter than those who dont have heart failure. Another study showed that the survival rates of people with chronic heart failure were 80% to 90% for one year, but that dropped to 50% to 60% for year five and down to 30% for 10 years.
A different study found that people who had heart failure and were discharged from the hospital had expected life spans ranging from three to 20 years, depending on various factors like age and gender. Its important to look at your specific situation when considering your prognosis.
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Types Of Heart Failure
The main types of heart failure are named for where they occur in the heart:
- Left-sided heart failure
- Biventricular heart failure
Clinicians also may classify heart failure as:
- Acute: You have active symptoms of heart failure, with either a new diagnosis or with long-term heart failure.
- Chronic: You have a history of heart failure, but your condition is relatively stable with no symptoms or with manageable symptoms.
Data Source And Population Of Patients
From October 2011 to January 2014, a total of 152 patients diagnosed with STEMI were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of vomiting: 62 patients with vomiting were in group A and 90 patients without vomiting were in group B. Their demographics were documented, including age, gender, hypertension, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index . We collected data on the Killip classification of cardiac function, left ventricular ejection fraction , the culprit artery, and the peak level of troponin T , brain natriuretic peptide . We also compare various factors, such as acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, malignant arrhythmia, and hospital mortality.
Our study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Department of Cardiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Attached to Capital Medical University and all enrolled patients gave informed written consent.
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Trouble Breathing Or Shortness Of Breath
When your heart canât properly fill and empty, blood backs up in your veins. This causes fluid to leak into your lungs. Your doctor may call it pulmonary edema. This can make it hard to breathe during activities, rest, or even sleep. A sudden lack of breath might wake you up. You may need to prop yourself up with extra pillows to breathe easier. This constant search for air can leave you tired and anxious.
Emotional Symptoms Towards The End Of Life
People with heart failure may experience different emotions and feelings. They may feel:
- up and down, with good days and bad days
- like they lack control over their life
- like it’s hard to cope with the reactions of others.
People may not think heart failure is as serious as other illnesses, such as cancer. Patients with heart failure can look well even when they feel very ill.
If a patient has anxiety or depression, their healthcare team will assess how it affects them and whether they need treatment, such as cognitive behavioural therapy or medication.
You can support the patient by providing emotional care and helping them with activities to make them feel better, such as reading, going outside and listening to music or audio books. Find out more about providing emotional care.
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How We Care For Heart Failure
The Benderson Family Heart Center at Boston Children’s Hospital is the largest pediatric heart program in the United States. We provide a full range of care for heart failure, from diagnostic assessment to interventional therapy using cardiac catheterization and cardiac surgery.
Our staff includes more than 80 pediatric heart specialists who provide care for thousands of children with heart conditions each year, ranging from the simple to complex.
End Stages Of Heart Failure: What To Expect
Congestive heart failure is one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for senior citizens. In fact, over 5 million adults in the United States experience heart failure.
Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle becomes damaged and can no longer pump blood effectively. Although symptoms can be managed, this is a chronic condition with no cure. In time, patients will reach the final stages of congestive heart failure.
Patients in the end stages of heart failure want to know what to expect. The symptoms of end-stage congestive heart failure include dyspnea, chronic cough or wheezing, edema, nausea or lack of appetite, a high heart rate, and confusion or impaired thinking.
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What Do Symptoms Of End Stage Congestive Heart Failure Look Like
Dyspnea or shortness of breath can occur both during activity and rest. This is the symptom that often sends patients racing to the hospital late at night. Work with your hospice or palliative care team to manage symptoms at home and avoid these stressful hospital trips.
When the heart cannot keep up with the supply of blood moving between it and the lungs, fluid can build up in the lungs. This results in a chronic cough or wheezing that can produce white or pink mucus.
As the hearts ability to pump slows down, fluid can build up in the body. This creates swelling in the extremities particularly the feet, ankles, legs, or abdomen.
Lack of Appetite
As the digestive system receives less blood, patients may feel full or nauseous. Not wanting to eat is a natural part of the body shutting down, but families often find this distressing. Learn more about why it is okay for your loved one to stop eating and drinking at end of life.
High Heart Rate
In response to a loss in pumping capacity, the heart begins to beat faster. The patient experiences this as a racing or throbbing heartbeat.
When the heart stops working effectively, it can change sodium levels in the blood. This leads to memory loss, confusion, and a general feeling of disorientation.
Hospice And Congestive Heart Failure
When a heart failure patient has been diagnosed with six months or less to live, the added support of hospice care helps them remain in their home until end of life.
Crossroads Hospice & Palliative Care provides a team of nurses, aides, social workers, volunteers, and chaplains to support the patient and their family through the final stages of congestive heart failure symptoms. To learn more about referring your patient to hospice, please call Crossroads at 1-888-564-3405.
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Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
ACE inhibitors relax and widen your blood vessels. This helps to improve the flow of blood around your body, which reduces the amount of work your heart has to do.
ACE inhibitors have been shown to improve the symptoms of heart failure, reduce the need for hospital admission and improve life expectancy caused by heart failure.
Your symptoms should improve within a few weeks of starting treatment.
The main side effects of ACE inhibitors are dizziness and a cough. You will need to have regular blood tests, at least once every year, while taking an ACE inhibitor.
If you are taking an ACE inhibitor, you should check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any other medicines. In particular, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines should not be taken with an ACE inhibitor. You should also avoid products containing high levels of potassium, such as salt substitutes.
Cardiac Cachexia Or Anorexia
Cardiac cachexia happens when a patient loses fat and muscle tissue. Patients with cachexia may lose their appetite and significant amounts of weight.
Speak to a dietitian about managing cachexia and anorexia. They may suggest eating small, frequent meals or taking high calorie, high protein food and supplement drinks. Patients may need to avoid some fruit juices and food supplements, which can affect their medication.
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Vomiting And Nausea Can Be A Sign That A Heart Attack Is Imminent
This is not about an actual heart attack in progress, but vomiting and nausea as a warning sign that a heart attack is in the very near future.
Nausea and vomiting are very complex interactions between the brain and the stomach, says Michael Fiocco, MD, Chief of Open Heart Surgery at Union Memorial Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, one of the nations top 50 heart hospitals.
The scientific thinking behind myocardial ischemia or infarction associated with nausea relates to the vagus nerve, continues Dr. Fiocco.
Myocardial ischemia simply means depletion of oxygen to heart muscle. Infarction means tissue death.
The vagus nerve arises from the brain and travels through the neck, along the esophagus, and gives off nerve fibers to the heart before continuing into the abdomen where it supplies nerves to the stomach, explains Dr. Fiocco.
So there is the stomach-heart-brain connection. Why people get nausea prior to a heart attack may be similar to why people get arm, neck or jaw pain rather than chest pain.
A lot of overlapping circuits may cause the brain to misread the signals, leading to nausea or left arm pain rather than chest pain.
Of course, being overcome with nausea, as a result of conditions ripe for a heart attack, can then lead to vomiting.
Vomiting was a tip-off to me that my mother might be having a heart attack, or that a heart attack was looming around the corner for her.
Understanding End Stage Congestive Heart Failure
Over 5 million adults across the United States experience heart failure, making this one of the most common reasons why seniors are subject to hospital admissions. Medical innovations have come a long way in helping seniors to live longer and enjoy greater health after a diagnosis of heart failure, but there still is no cure for this condition. It occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood to sustain the body, and with time, all patients diagnosed with this condition will reach the final stage of the disease.
In end stage congestive heart failure, palliative care or hospice is often called in to provide comfort and support to seniors. As they continue to live each day to the fullest, many question what they should expect. Understanding the symptoms of end stage heart failure can help seniors to feel better prepared for their path ahead.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Heart Failure
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
- fast breathing
- shortness of breath or heavy breathing
- feeling more tired than usual
- needing to take frequent rest breaks while playing with friends
- falling asleep when feeding or becoming too tired to eat
- lack of appetite
- swelling of the legs, ankles, eyelids, face, or abdomen
- nausea or vomiting
Why Am I Nauseous
Heart failure may cause a change in your appetite.3 If you are feeling full, bloated or nauseated you probably dont feel like eating. This can happen when there is decreased blood flow to the digestive system resulting in interference with the digestive process.1 This occurs because as the heart has to work harder to pump blood throughout the body, the volume of circulating blood decreases because the chambers of the heart dont fill and empty properly. Blood gets diverted from the digestive system to more vital organs like the brain.3
A poor appetite can also result from the accumulation of fluid in the liver and digestive system.3 Fluid accumulation, edema, is a common symptom of heart failure. We most commonly think of swelling in the legs and ankles, but it can happen anywhere in the body.3 The swelling can cause you to feel sick to your stomach. Nausea can lead to weight loss because it interferes with appetite and the bodys ability to absorb nutrients from the food.4
Swelling in the abdomen, sometimes called ascites, can also contribute to abdominal pain or tenderness.3,5 The accumulation of fluid that is responsible for the abdominal swelling can decrease your appetite and result in nausea as well as discomfort from the weight gain.
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What Causes Heart Failure
Although the risk of heart failure doesnt change as you get older, youre more likely to have heart failure when youre older.
Many medical conditions that damage the heart muscle can cause heart failure. Common conditions include:
- Tobacco and recreational drug use.
- Medications. Some drugs used to fight cancer can lead to heart failure.
Nyha Functional Classification System
The New York Heart Association functional classification considers heart failure symptoms that happen during exercise to determine stage. Patients can go back and forth between stages depending on how well-controlled symptoms are on a given day.
- Stage 1: The person has heart disease, but it isnt yet causing symptoms or limiting activities.
- Stage 2: The person has mild symptoms that only slightly limit activity.
- Stage 3: The person has significant limitations to activities. He or she is only comfortable when resting.
- Stage 4: The person has major limitations and experiences symptoms when at rest.
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Imaging And Other Tests
Other tests provide pictures of the heart and surrounding structures or show how well the heart is working:
- Electrocardiogram : An electrocardiogram test uses small sensors to measure heart rate , rhythm and electrical impulses.
- Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray is a picture of your lungs, heart and surrounding structures. It can show whether there is fluid in your lungs from heart failure, or if your heart muscle is enlarged.
- Echocardiogram : Echocardiography uses sound waves to create images of your heart. It can show how thick the heart muscle has become, as well as measure ejection fraction.
- MRI: MRI is an advanced imaging test that takes pictures of the heart and surrounding structures. It helps determine your heart function and size and whether there are any changes in the heart muscle. A cardiac MRI may help your doctors identify causes of heart failure.