Monday, September 26, 2022

How Does Heart Disease Affect The Skeletal System

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Osteoporosis And Cardiovascular Disease

The Heart and Circulatory System – How They Work

Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are common age-related conditions. Mounting biological and epidemiological evidence supports a link between the two diseases. Low bone mineral density has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal epidemiologic studies.

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy In Congestive Heart Failure

Date:
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association
Summary:
Patients with advanced congestive heart failure lose skeletal muscle mass, but their heart muscles become enlarged to provide the body with an adequate supply of blood and oxygen. It has been known that the protein angiotensin II plays a villainous role in this process. Now, researchers have elucidated the process and identified new therapeutic targets.

It is a paradox: Patients with advanced congestive heart failure lose skeletal muscle mass, but their heart muscles become enlarged to provide the body with an adequate supply of blood and thus with oxygen. It has long been known that the protein angiotensin II plays a villainous role in this process, but the exact mechanism has remained unclear. Now, after seven years of fitting the pieces of this puzzle together, the biologist Dr. Philipp Du Bois and the cardiologist PD Dr. Jens Fielitz of the Experimental and Clinical Research Center , a joint cooperation between the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association and the Charité — Universitätsmedizin Berlin in collaboration with the molecular biologist Professor Eric N. Olson have elucidated the process and identified new therapeutic targets.

Angiotensin II induces muscle atrophy

New regulator and signaling pathway discovered

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How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • How old you are
  • How well you handle certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
  • If your condition is expected to get worse
  • Your opinion or preference

There is no cure for RA. The goal of treatment is often to limit pain and inflammation, and help ensure function. You may have 1 or more types of treatments. Treatment may include:

  • Medicines.;Some medicines may be used for pain relief. Some are used to treat inflammation. Others can help to slow the disease from getting worse. Medicines should be managed by a rheumatologist. This is a doctor who specializes in arthritis and rheumatic diseases. You may need regular blood tests to check how the medicines affect your blood cells, liver, and kidneys.
  • Splints.;Splints may be used to help protect the joints and strengthen weak joints.
  • Physical therapy.;Physical therapy may be used to help increase the strength and movement of the affected areas.

In some cases, surgery may be an option if other treatments dont work. Surgery does not cure RA. It helps correct the deformities caused by the disease. After surgery, RA can still cause problems. You may even need more surgery. Joint repair or reconstruction can be done in many ways, including:

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Reninangiotensinaldosterone System Inhibitors Aceis And Arbs

The reninangiotensinaldosterone system has been implicated in various processes in the lungs that may be important in the pathogenesis of COPD, including the induction of pro-inflammatory modulators, the generation of reactive oxygen species and the development of pulmonary fibrosis . Data on the effects of RAAS inhibitors in patients with COPD are limited, although a couple of small studies have indicated a potential benefit on pulmonary function and haemodynamics . More recently, an analysis of the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis , including individuals in the general population aged 4584 years who had no clinical evidence of CV disease, found that baseline use of an ACEI or ARB protected against the progression of emphysema, especially when prescribed at high doses . The authors attributed the effects of such RAAS inhibitors to inhibition of transforming growth factor- signalling in the lung, thereby reducing the progression of airspace enlargement.

Hormone Replacement Therapy And Cvd

Skeletal System by Megan L.

Until about 10 years ago, hormone replacement therapy was commonly prescribed for menopausal women to relieve menopause symptoms and protect against cardiovascular problems and osteoporosis. But the Womens Health Initiative, a large clinical study, demonstrated that HRT has no benefits in preventing CVD and may increase CVD risk. Reevaluation of this study, as well as more recent studies, suggest that starting HRT during the perimenopausal and early postmenopausal periods does have cardioprotective effects, whereas for women in late postmenopause, HRT could be detrimental at worst or ineffectual at best.

The role of HRT is still being debated, with benefits and risks under evaluation. Certain studies indicate a link between HRT and decreased coronary heart disease; some evidence shows that starting HRT early in the postmenopausal period has the greatest effect. These mixed findings underscore the need for more studies of HRT and its effects on the cardiovascular health of women of all ages. Women considering HRT should consult their healthcare provider to discuss its benefits and risks and learn about treatment options.

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Heart Disease And Immune System: What Can You Do About It

Heart disease and immune system connection is most often neglected, much like hormones and their role in heart disease. Immune system affects cardiovascular system in more ways than one.

By fighting germs, it prevents viral and bacterial diseases of the heart muscle as well as cancer which can develop in the pericardium. There are also some natural antibiotics which can help the immune system, by fighting the bad guys.

HEART DISEASE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM – CYTOKINES

However, the most effective way to decrease the risk of heart disease, when it comes to immune system, is to make sure that it is functioning optimally.

Immune system consists of natural killer cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, antibodies and other white blood cells and chemicals.

All of them work together, like a well-organized army which protects us, including the cardiovascular system, from dangerous micro organisms much better than antibiotics or other similar medications.

While bacterias and viruses can adapt to antibiotics, immune system can adapt to these dangerous micro organisms thereby becoming more efficient in destroying them.

If we want to boost immune system, the biggest attention should be focused on cytokines. Cytokines can be described as hormones of the immune system which have profound affect on many white blood cells and chemicals.

HEART DISEASE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM – INFLAMMATION

HEART DISEASE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM – LYMPH

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The Connection Between Heart Disease And Infertility

Why is an infertility physician writing about heart health awareness?

Female infertility patients, whose median age is around 36 or 37, might not think heart disease applies to them at this point in their life. Theyre focused on getting pregnant rather than developing cardiovascular disease decades down the road. Their male partners too are probably not thinking about the dangers of heart disease unless they are significantly older. There are some important connections, however, between infertility and heart disease for both genders.

PCOS and Heart Disease

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common endocrine disorder causing infertility in three to ten percent of reproductive-aged women. Though the cause of PCOS is not known, what is known is that PCOS causes menstrual irregularities, the inability to get pregnant, increased hair growth on the face and chest, acne, and obesity. Additionally if not treated properly, it can have long-term consequence, including increasing your risk for heart disease. This is due to the higher levels of insulin caused by PCOS, which are known to elevate levels of triglyceride and cholesterol, lower high density lipoprotein , raise blood pressure and increase atherosclerosis in your blood vessels. In turn, these symptoms increase the risks for a heart attack and/or stroke.

Male Infertility and Hypertension

Positive Results for Women from the GRAVID Study

Pre-existing Heart Disease and Fertility Treatment

Side Effects Of Treatment

How your muscular system works – Emma Bryce

Many people with MS can experience other symptoms not because of the disease itself, but because of their treatment or the effect the disease has on daily life.

For example, certain disease-modifying drugs may weaken the immune system. This causes a person to become immunocompromised, increasing their risk of infections. In turn, this may increase their risk of serious diseases, such as developing pneumonia from a common cold.

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What Are The Parts Of The Skeletal System

The skeletal system is a network of many different parts that work together to help you move. The main part of your skeletal system consists of your bones, hard structures that create your bodys framework the skeleton. There are 206 bones in an adult human skeleton. Each bone has three main layers:

  • Periosteum: The periosteum is a tough membrane that covers and protects the outside of the bone.
  • Compact bone: Below the periosteum, compact bone is white, hard, and smooth. It provides structural support and protection.
  • Spongy bone: The core, inner layer of the bone is softer than compact bone. It has small holes called pores to store marrow.

The other components of your skeletal system include:

  • Cartilage: This smooth and flexible substance covers the tips of your bones where they meet. It enables bones to move without friction . When cartilage wears away, as in arthritis, it can be painful and cause movement problems.
  • Joints: A joint is where two or more bones in the body come together. There are three different joint types. The types of joints are:
  • Immovable joints: Immovable joints dont let the bones move at all, like the joints between your skull bones.
  • Partly movable joints: These joints allow limited movement. The joints in your rib cage are partly movable joints.
  • Movable joints: Movable joints allow a wide range of motion. Your elbow, shoulder, and knee are movable joints.
  • Ligaments: Bands of strong connective tissue called ligaments hold bones together.
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    Cardiac Causes Of Impaired Bowel Perfusion

    In intensive care patients, inadequate splanchnic perfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.,, A low cardiac output syndrome with tissue hypoperfusion is an infrequent but serious complication of coronary artery bypass surgery. Regional tissue hypoxia may develop despite apparently stable haemodynamics, as suggested by episodes of gastric mucosal acidosis, in up to 50% of patients after cardiac surgery. The gastric mucosal pH continues to decrease, reaching its minimum 5h post-operatively. This suggests that a regional mismatch between oxygen delivery and demand may persist after the stabilization of systemic haemodynamics.

    The Heart Attack Of The Skeleton

    Skeletal System Pathologies

    Those suffering with osteoporosis have a greater risk of breaking a bone, particularly during everyday activities. And they often find out they have it when they break a bone. Thats why its referred to as the heart attack of the skeleton.

    People might not know they have heart disease until they have a heart attack. Osteoporosis is like that, says Dr. David Houserman, a resident orthopedic surgeon with Kettering Health. Its silent, and we might not know about it until the person suffers a fracture.

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    At The Other End Of The Cycle Those Who Went Through Menopause Before The Age Of 47 Were Found To Have A 33% Higher Risk Of Developing Heart Disease And A 42% Greater Risk Of Stroke

    The connection between heart disease and menopause is a little clearer. Before menopause, womens oestrogen levels are higher with oestrogen known to help with artery and vessel structure as well as heart function. After menopause, womens oestrogen levels decline, which can increase the risk of heart disease. The good news is hormone replacement therapy helps replace lost oestrogen and is also considered beneficial to cholesterol reduction, another known risk factor for heart disease.

    Ultimately, it appears that no matter where we are along the reproductive cycle, we are given clues to our future heart health. The challenge is for health care professionals to start connecting the dots between our reproductive experiences and the impact this could have on our hearts. The more research and understanding of these important connections could help us save womens lives.

    If you think you might be at risk, make sure to book in to see your GP for a heart health check;.

    Starting A Program For Bone Health Fitness

    An effective exercise program for bone health includes 30 minutes of weight-bearing activity, four or more days a week. To help you stay motivated, choose an activity that you enjoy. There are many activities that will get you on your feet and moving.

    Your 30 minutes of exercise can be done all in one stretch or broken up into shorter intervals. A 10-minute brisk walk three times a day is a great way to get started.

    If it is not safe to walk outside, walking throughout your house, climbing stairs indoors and even walking in place are all great weight-bearing exercises.

    To really reap the benefits of exercise, you need to add flexibility and balance training to the mix. All exercise sessions should end with stretching. Increasing your flexibility improves your ability to move easily, can reduce your risk for injury, and provides mental relaxation benefits.

    Before choosing an activity, it is important to consider your risk of falling. Your doctor and a physical therapist can help you plan your exercise program. People with severe osteoporosis should be careful weightlifting with their arms while standing upright to avoid excessive spine compression . They should also avoid exercises that bend or twist the spine. Similarly, stationary bikes and rowing machines are not the best options for those with severe osteoporosis and contact sports should be avoided. Chair and corner wall exercises can be a safer alternative.

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    Types Of Heart Muscle Diseases

    There are several types of heart muscle diseases. The most common ones include:

    • Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is the most common type of heart muscle disease and causes the heart to weaken and the chambers to enlarge. It prevents the heart from being able to pump enough blood out to the body.
    • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is often inherited and leads to the thickening of the heart muscle, making it difficult for blood to leave the heart.
    • Restrictive cardiomyopathy: In this rare heart muscle disease, the heart muscles stiffen and the ventricles of the heart cannot relax and fill with blood between heartbeats as a result.

    How Does Kidney Disease Affect The Heart

    Problems of the Circulatory System

    Kidneys are important to support and maintain some body functions. They are also essential part of your urinary system. And if something goes awry with them, this can also affect other organs such as heart. Yap, kidneys and heart are closely associated. How does kidney disease affect the heart?

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    Mental And Emotional Health

    The body and mind are inseparable, and the symptoms of Crohns can result in emotional difficulties. While the primary cause of Crohns is not emotional, flare-ups may occur in times that are more emotionally challenging. Coping with a serious chronic illness is already difficult, so its important to monitor stress and emotional levels.

    How Heart Disease Affects The Respiratory System

  • You breathe in air from the world around you. In the lungs, the oxygen passes into the bloodstream and attaches to a protein called haemoglobin in the red blood cells.
  • This oxygenated blood returns to the heart where it is then pumped through the blood vessels around the organs and tissues of the body.
  • The cells use the oxygen and release carbon dioxide, which is transported in the blood back to the heart.
  • The heart pumps this deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • The carbon dioxide passes through the thin walls to be released when you breathe out, ready for the whole process to start again.
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    Research Is Underway To Further Understand The Cardiac Effects Of Parkinsons

    It is possible to image the sympathetic nervous system of the human heart by injecting a radioactive tracer, meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine, . Development of this technique, known as MIBG cardiac imaging, holds much promise as a test to confirm the diagnosis of PD , to identify those who are at risk of developing PD in the future, and to distinguish PD from related disorders. MIBG cardiac imaging is still considered an experimental procedure for detection of PD and is not yet in use as a clinical tool for this purpose.

    A recent research study was conducted in monkeys in which the destruction of the sympathetic nerves of the heart was chemically induced to mimic the changes that are seen in PD. The cardiac system was then imaged using a number of new-generation radioactive tracers, which bind to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. This model system may help to shed light on the molecular changes that accompany the loss of the sympathetic nerves of the heart and can also be used to track the response of the cardiac system to therapeutic agents.

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