Monday, October 3, 2022

Which Of The Following Statements Is False Regarding Coronary Heart Disease And Smoking

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How Can I Quit Smoking

Measuring your Heart Attack Risk: Coronary Calcium Score: History, Risk Adjustment

There are many different ways to quit smoking. To succeed, you have to find a smoking cessation plan that works for your personality. You need to be ready emotionally and mentally. You should want to quit smoking for yourself and not just for family or friends exposed to your secondhand smoke.

When you decide to quit, these pointers can help:

The Discriminatory Paradox: Measures Of Association Vs Measures Of Discrimination

There is a tacit but misguided belief that the predictive accuracy of an exposure is very high when it is supported by a conclusive average association of considerable magnitude . Nonetheless, a risk factor strongly associated with a disease is not necessarily an accurate instrument for classifying individuals according to their disease status. As shown in , for an association to be an accurate instrument for discrimination, the association must be of a size seldom observed in epidemiologic studies . Our study illustrates this important point.

In the course of our analyses, we observed that risk assessment plots constructed by drawing the predicted risk for CHD against the TPF and FPF alone or in combination with other measures are a more appropriate tool for evaluating the relevance of a risk factor in public health than simple measures such as the AUC, since the risk assessment plot allows for the evaluation of the TPF and FPF for different risk score thresholds . As a second choice, the TPFFPF5% appears as a simple but informative measure.

Prevent Complications Over Your Lifetime

Your doctor will work with you to manage medical conditions that can raise your risk of heart problems and complications.

Your doctor will likely suggest heart-healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating heart-healthy foods, being physically active, and quitting smoking. Your doctor may refer you to other professionals, such as a registered dietitian or exercise physiologist. Your healthcare team can help you set up a personal plan to meet your health goals.

There are benefits to quitting smoking no matter how long or how much you have smoked. Coronary heart disease risk associated with smoking begins to decrease soon after you quit, and it generally continues to decrease over time. In addition:

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Anatomy And Physiology Of Smoke Inhalation

Administration of any drug via smoking is a highly efficient route, allowing rapid delivery to the brain. This act involves inhalation of a small volume of smoke into the mouth from which it is drawn into the lungs . The breathing pattern employed is different from normal tidal breathing in that a smoker’s inhalation is deeper and more rapid, drawing the smoke in as a bolus at the beginning of inhalation . However, this pattern varies greatly between smokers and during the course of consuming a single cigarette . Uptake of smoke ingredients is determined by many factors, including chemical composition, smoker’s inhalation behavior, lung morphology, and physiologic parameters such as tidal volume, vital capacity, rate of breathing, and rate of lung clearance . Individual differences in size, metabolism, and genetics may also play a role. One hypothesis suggests that stimulation of nicotine-sensitive receptors in the upper airway by various elements of smoke governs the amount inhaled. Indeed, application of a topical anesthetic to the upper airway reduces the quantity of smoke inhaled .

one to three hours.

Symptoms Of Heart Failure

Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Tobacco Use ...

Symptoms of heart failure include:

  • new or worsening shortness of breath
  • difficulty lying flat at night
  • fainting or passing out
  • weight gain
  • muscular fatigue, tiredness
  • swelling of ankles or legs
  • swelling of abdomen
  • heart palpitations
  • chest pain or discomfort in parts of the upper body
  • unexplained coughing and wheezing
  • constipation.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Heart Disease

Although some women have no symptoms, others may have5

  • Angina
  • Pain in the neck, jaw, or throat
  • Pain in the upper abdomen or back

These symptoms may happen when you are resting or when you are doing regular daily activities. Women also may have other symptoms, including5

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue

Sometimes heart disease may be silent and not diagnosed until you have other symptoms or emergencies, including5

  • Heart attack:;Chest pain or discomfort, upper back or neck pain, indigestion, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, extreme fatigue, upper body discomfort, dizziness, and shortness of breath
  • Arrhythmia:;Fluttering feelings in the chest
  • Heart failure:;Shortness of breath, fatigue, or swelling of the feet, ankles, legs, abdomen, or neck veins

If you have any of these symptoms,

Survey Questionnaire And Analytical Design

The questionnaire used was originally prepared in English and consisted of knowledge-based questions assessing the participant’s ability to identify correctly 5 modifiable risk factors of CASHD. This questionnaire was then translated into the Hindi language, and thoroughly checked by bilingual speakers to assure that questions intentionally worded as negatives, to make the true/false nature of correct answers vary, remained appropriately meaningful. Furthermore, individuals who spoke only Hindi verified the correct impression and idiomatic meaning of each question to the research team. Before filling out the survey, participants were instructed to only mark “yes” for risk factors that they felt definitely contribute to CASHD, otherwise to mark “not sure.” The research team emphasized that discussion of responses should not occur between subjects and this was enforced by direct observation of the participants during completion of the survey.

Out of the ten risk factors listed in the survey, five are clearly known to cause CASHD. These modifiable risk factors are smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, DM and obesity. Additional non-associated risk factors were included in the questionnaire to maintain validity of responses and avoid false positives that could be generated by random responses. After participants completed the questionnaires, the survey forms were collected and the correct answers were explained.

Figure 1

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Literature Search Results And Quality Assessment

On the whole, 1651 studies were obtained from the search database, six duplicate studies were excluded, 1478 studies were excluded after reading the titles and abstracts, 146 studies were excluded after carefully reading the full texts and screening by complying with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and finally 21 studies were included, all of which were retrospective cohort studies . Seventeen of the studies were from China, and the remaining four were from the United States, United Kingdom, Japan and Italy. The exposure factors in this study were smoking history . Five studies assessed whether cases were currently smoking, six studies stratified cases by whether they were current or former smokers and the remaining 10 recorded whether cases had a history of smoking.

Fig. 1. Study flow diagram.

The result observed here was the presence of disease progression. To be specific, nine studies adopted disease severity as the outcome measure, six studies used death, two studies used disease progression, two studies used cases admitted to the ICU and the other two studies applied cases requiring upgrading of treatment regimen and requiring invasive ventilation as the outcome measures, respectively. Nineteen of the mentioned studies reported results in cases with CVD.

Prevalence And Economic Impact Of Smoking

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Approximately 480,000 Americans die each year as a result of active and/or passive smoking-related health consequences . Despite the seemingly well-known and highly publicized health consequences of smoking, 13.9% of the U.S. population 18 years of age or older are current cigarette smokers . Former U.S. Assistant Secretary for Health Howard Koh asserted that although evidence-based tools were successful in substantially reducing smoking prevalence between 1997 and 2004, efforts were not applied to their full potential nationwide, limiting the efficacy of anti-smoking campaigns . Other experts have attributed declines in cigarette smoking to anti-smoking advertisements, stigma, smoking bans, and increased taxation. Evidence-based tools remain valuable, indicated by slow, steady downward prevalence trends since 1997. However, they are only useful if they reach an audience. These tools seem not to be preventing the initiation of new smokers, despite the overall reductions in use .

Bidis are rolled into air-cured and fermented tobacco wrappers.

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If I Have Been Smoking For A While Is It Too Late To Quit

Smoking cessation, at any age, will improve your health. Years of smoking damage can reverse with time.

When you quit, benefits happen almost immediately:

  • After 20 minutes, your blood pressure and heart rate drop, and the temperature of your hands and feet increases. Plus, you stop polluting the air.
  • After eight hours, your blood will contain lower levels of carbon monoxide and higher levels of oxygen.
  • After 24 hours, your heart attack risk decreases.
  • After 48 hours, your nerve endings adjust to the absence of nicotine, and you begin to regain your ability to taste and smell.
  • After two weeks to three months, your circulation improves, and you can tolerate more exercise.
  • After one to nine months, your overall energy level increases, and you cough less. Plus, sinus congestion, fatigue and shortness of breath decrease.
  • After one year, your risk of heart disease cuts in half compared to a current smoker.
  • After five to 15 years, your risk of stroke lowers to that of people who never smoked.
  • After 10 years, your risk of dying from lung cancer drops to almost the same rate as a lifelong nonsmoker. Plus, you decrease the risk of other cancers.
  • After 15 years, your risk of heart disease finally reaches that of people who never smoked.

What Is A Heart Attack

A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, happens when a part of the heart muscle doesnt get enough blood.

The more time that passes without treatment to restore blood flow, the greater the damage to the heart muscle.

Coronary artery disease ;is the main cause of heart attack. A less common cause is a severe spasm, or sudden contraction, of a coronary artery that can stop blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Can Symptoms Differ For Women

Although men and women can experience the same symptoms of coronary heart disease, women often experience no symptoms or have different symptoms than men do.

  • Activity that brings on chest pain. In men, angina tends to worsen with physical activity and go away with rest. Women are more likely than men to have angina while they are resting. In women who have coronary microvascular disease, angina often happens during routine daily activities, such as shopping or cooking, rather than during exercise. Microvascular angina events may last longer and be more painful than other types of angina.
  • Location and type of pain. Pain symptoms are different for each person. Women having angina or a heart attack often describe their chest pain as crushing, or they say it feels like pressure, squeezing, or tightness. Women may have pain in the chest or the neck and throat.
  • Mental stress. Mental stress is more likely to trigger angina pain in women than in men.
  • Other symptoms. Common signs and symptoms for womenincludenausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, sleep problems, fatigue, and lack of energy.

People Can Be Born With Heart Disease

which of the following statements is true regarding ...

Congenital heart disease and congenital heart defects are heart problems that are present at birth. There are many forms of heart defects including abnormal development of the heart muscle, heart valves, and blood vessels into and out of the heart. Heart defects are common birth abnormalities, present in over 30,000 infants born annually.

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Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Coronary artery bypass grafting is a type of surgery called revascularization, used to improve blood flow to the heart in people with severe coronary artery disease .

CABG is one treatment for CAD. During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from another part of the body is connected or grafted to the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses the blocked portion of the coronary artery. This new passage routes oxygen-rich blood around the blockage to the heart muscle. As many as four major blocked coronary arteries can be bypassed during one surgery.

Post Menopausal Hormon Replacement Therapy

How prevalent is heart disease among women?

Female Reproductive Organs

Cardiovascular disease is NOT just a mans disease. Cardiovascular disease is the Number 1 killer of women over age 25 in the United States, regardless of race or ethnicity. Once a woman reaches the age of 50 , the risk for heart disease increases. In young women who have undergone early or surgical menopause, the risk for heart disease is also higher, especially when combined with other risk factors such as:

  • Diabetes
  • Elevated LDL cholesterol
  • Low HDL cholesterol, sometimes called “good” cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Family history of heart disease

What is menopause?

Menopause is a normal stage in a womans life. The term menopause is commonly used to describe any of the changes a woman experiences either before or after she stops menstruating. As menopause nears, the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen , causing changes in the menstrual cycle and other physical changes. The most common symptoms of menopause are hot flashes, night sweats, emotional changes and changes in the vagina .

Technically, menopause is the end of a womans reproductive cycle, when the ovaries no longer produce eggs and she has her last menstrual cycle. The diagnosis of menopause is not confirmed until a woman has not had her period for six to twelve consecutive months.

How is heart disease associated with menopause?

What can be done to reduce the risk of heart disease for menopausal women?

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Response To The Letter To The Editor Regarding Smoking And Coronary Heart Disease In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


  • 2017
  • Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • 2017
  • Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • 2017
  • 2015
  • 2015
  • The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 2012
  • 2011
  • Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • 2010
  • S. Baba, H. Iso, +4 authorsS. Tsugane
  • Medicine
  • European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology
  • 2006

Is Vaping Safer Than Smoking A Cigarette

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The safety and dangers of e-cigarettes remain unclear. Many e-cigarettes contain high amounts of nicotine. And vaping may be a gateway into other forms of nicotine, like cigarettes or chewing tobacco.

E-cigarette vapors contain other damaging substances, too. Inhaling these non-nicotine vape ingredients may cause severe, sometimes deadly lung damage .

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Tobacco: Health Benefits Of Smoking Cessation

Beneficial health changes that take place:

  • Within 20 minutes, your heart rate and blood pressure drop.
  • 12 hours, the carbon monoxide level in your blood drops to normal.
  • 2-12 weeks, your circulation improves and your lung function increases.
  • 1-9 months, coughing and shortness of breath decrease.
  • 1 year, your risk of coronary heart disease is about half that of a smoker’s.
  • 5 years, your stroke risk is reduced to that of a nonsmoker 5 to 15 years after quitting.
  • 10 years, your risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker and your risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, cervix, and pancreas decreases.
  • 15 years, the risk of coronary heart disease is that of a nonsmoker’s.

Benefits in comparison with those who continued:

  • At about 30: gain almost 10 years of life expectancy.
  • At about 40: gain 9 years of life expectancy.
  • At about 50: gain 6 years of life expectancy.
  • At about 60: gain 3 years of life expectancy.
  • After the onset of life-threatening disease: rapid benefit, people who quit smoking after having a heart attack reduce their chances of having another heart attack by 50%.

Quitting smoking reduces the chances of impotence, having difficulty getting pregnant, having premature births, babies with low birth weights and miscarriage.

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Reference

Tobacco And Nicotine Products

Bidis consist of sun-dried tobacco, finely ground and rolled into a leaf of the Diospyros melanoxylon plant native to India. They contain concentrated tobacco, with an average 21.2 mg/g of nicotine compared with 16.3 mg/g of nicotine in filtered and 13.5 mg/g in unfiltered cigarettes, but have less total nicotine because they are shorter . Nonetheless, an unfiltered bidi can release three to five times more tar and nicotine and contain more ammonia and carbon monoxide than a regular cigarette. Bidis look similar to small cigars or marijuana cigarettes and are available filtered or unfiltered in many flavors, including vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, cherry, and menthol . Bidis are not commonly used in the United States, and sale and distribution is banned in some states . However, these products are available on the Internet .

smoke emitted by the burning end of a cigarette.

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What Are The Heart Disease Risk Factors That I Cannot Change

  • Age. Your risk of heart disease increases as you get older. Men age 45 and older and women age 55 and older have a greater risk.
  • Sex. Some risk factors may affect heart disease risk differently in women than in men. For example, estrogen provides women some protection against heart disease, but diabetes raises the risk of heart disease more in women than in men.
  • Race or ethnicity. Certain groups have higher risks than others. African Americans are more likely than whites to have heart disease, while Hispanic Americans are less likely to have it. Some Asian groups, such as East Asians, have lower rates, but South Asians have higher rates.
  • Family history. You have a greater risk if you have a close family member who had heart disease at an early age.

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