What Are The Risk Factors For Heart Failure
Heart failure can happen to anyone. However, certain factors may increase your risk of developing this condition.
There is a higher incidence of heart failure in men compared with women, though the prevalence is about the same for all sexes.
People with diseases that damage the heart are also at an increased risk. These conditions include:
- ivabradine in some cases
- verquvo in some cases
Always speak with your doctor before taking new medications. Some medications are completely off-limits to people with heart failure, including naproxen and ibuprofen .
Ace Inhibitors And Arbs
ACE inhibitors and ARBs work by opening blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. These medicines can:
- Reduce the work your heart has to do
- Help your heart muscle pump better
- Keep your heart failure from getting worse
Common side effects of these drugs include:
When you take these medicines, you will need to have blood tests to check how well your kidneys are working and to measure your potassium levels.
Most of the time, your provider will prescribe either an ACE inhibitor or an ARB.
What Are The Treatments For Heart Failure
Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and how serious it is. There’s no cure for heart failure. But treatment can help you live longer with fewer symptoms.
Even with treatment, heart failure usually gets worse over time, so you’ll likely need treatment for the rest of your life.
Most treatment plans include:
You may need heart surgery if:
- You have a congenital heart defect or damage to your heart that can be fixed.
- The left side of your heart is getting weaker and putting a device in your chest could help. Devices include:
- A biventricular pacemaker .
- A mechanical heart pump or a total artificial heart).
As part of your treatment, you’ll need to pay close attention to your symptoms, because heart failure can worsen suddenly. Your provider may suggest a cardiac rehabilitation program to help you learn how to manage your condition.
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What Is The Outlook With Heart Failure
With the right care, congestive heart failure wont stop you from doing the things you enjoy. Your prognosis, or outlook for the future, will depend on:
- How well your heart muscle is working.
- How well you respond to your treatment plan.
- How well you follow your treatment plan.
One study says that people with heart failure have a life span 10 years shorter than those who dont have heart failure. Another study showed that the survival rates of people with chronic heart failure were 80% to 90% for one year, but that dropped to 50% to 60% for year five and down to 30% for 10 years.
A different study found that people who had heart failure and were discharged from the hospital had expected life spans ranging from three to 20 years, depending on various factors like age and gender. Its important to look at your specific situation when considering your prognosis.
Is There A Treatment For Heart Failure
There are more treatment options available for heart failure than ever before. Tight control over your medications and lifestyle, coupled with careful monitoring, are the first steps. As the condition progresses, doctors specializing in the treatment of heart failure can offer more advanced treatment options.
The goals of treating heart failure are to try to keep it from getting worse , to ease symptoms, and to improve quality of life.
Some common types of medicines used to treat it are:
- Aldosterone antagonists
- Selective sinus node inhibitors
- SGLT2 inhibitor
Your doctor may also recommend a program called cardiac rehabilitation to help you exercise safely and keep up a heart-healthy lifestyle. It usually includes workouts that are designed just for you, education, and tips to lower your chance of heart trouble, like quitting smoking or changing your diet.
Cardiac rehab also offers emotional support. You can meet people like you who can help you stay on track.
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Facts About Heart Failure In The United States
- About 6.2 million adults in the United States have heart failure.1
- In 2018, heart failure was mentioned on 379,800 death certificates .1
- Heart failure costs the nation an estimated $30.7 billion in 2012.2 This total includes the cost of health care services, medicines to treat heart failure, and missed days of work.
What Medications Are Available To Reduce Edema
Diuretic medications can increase the amount of urine output by your kidneys, and thereby reducing the volume of fluid in your blood vessels. This lightens the load your heart has to pump, reducing swelling.
Diuretic medications are especially useful for people with reduced cardiac output in the left side of the heart.
Examples of diuretic medications used for heart failure include loop diuretics such as Lasix and Demadex and thiazide diuretics such as Zaroxolyn .
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What Causes Heart Failure
Although the risk of heart failure doesnt change as you get older, youre more likely to have heart failure when youre older.
Many medical conditions that damage the heart muscle can cause heart failure. Common conditions include:
- Tobacco and recreational drug use.
- Medications. Some drugs used to fight cancer can lead to heart failure.
Factors That Can Worsen Symptoms Of Heart Failure
The symptoms of heart failure can be worsened by a number of factors, including:
- too much salt, fluid, or alcohol in the diet
- some viral and bacterial infections
- kidney diseases
Treatment for heart failure may include:
- medicines, such as
- diuretics to remove excess fluid and improve symptoms of heart failure
- mineralcortiocoid receptor antagonists are also recommended and used in most patients with heart failure to reduce mortality and hospitalisation
- ACE inhibitors to open up blood vessels, reduce blood pressure and reduce sodium retention and water retention
- certain beta-blockers to slow the heart rate and reduce its work
- aldosterone blockers to reduce blood pressure and reduce the effects of damage to the heart muscle
- ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and aldosterone blockers can increase survival and reduce the likelihood of hospitalisation.
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Can Surgery Be Used To Treat Heart Failure
In heart failure, surgery may sometimes prevent further damage to the heart and improve the heart’s function. Procedures used include:
- Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The most common surgery for heart failure caused by coronary artery disease is . Although surgery is more risky for people with heart failure, new strategies before, during, and after surgery have reduced the risks and improved outcomes.
- Heart valve surgery. Diseased heart valves can be treated both surgically and non-surgically .
- Implantable left ventricular assist device . The LVAD is known as the “bridge to transplantation” for patients who haven’t responded to other treatments and are hospitalized with severe systolic heart failure. This device helps your heart pump blood throughout your body. It allows you to be mobile, sometimes returning home to await a heart transplant. It may also be used as destination therapy for long-term support in patients who are not eligible for transplant.
- Heart transplant. A heart transplant is considered when heart failure is so severe that it doesn’t respond to all other therapies, but the person’s health is otherwise good.
Articles On Heart Failure Types & Stages
The ”Stages of Heart Failure,” developed by the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology , will help you understand that heart failure is often a progressive condition and can worsen over time. The stages will also help you understand why a new medication was added to your treatment plan and why lifestyle changes and other treatments are needed.
Note: The stages classified by the AHA and ACC are different from the New York Heart Association clinical classifications of heart failure. NYHA ranks patients as class I-II-III-IV, according to the degree of symptoms or functional limits. Ask your health care provider what stage of heart failure you are in.
Check the table below to see if your therapy matches what the AHA and ACC recommend. The table below outlines a basic plan of care that may or may not apply to you. Ask your doctor or nurse to explain the therapies that are listed if you do not understand why you are or are not receiving them.
|People at high risk of developing heart failure , including people with:
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Utilization And Medical Coding
In addition to having the knowledge of the pathophysiology of the HF and its management with the help of established and novel therapies, it is important for a physician to understand how to document the therapy so as to satisfy the reimbursement requirements. The utilization process ensures the appropriateness of the incurred healthcare costs by reviewing inpatient and outpatient services and comparing them against medical necessity guidelines. Usually the clinical documentation improvement team facilitates the appropriate coding of the disease according to the guidelines and documents the codes in the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification Version 10 mode. ICD-10 contains codes for human diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, social scenarios, external causes of injury or diseases and diagnostic and procedure codes associated with inpatient, outpatient and physician office utilization in the United States . Some of the ICD-10-CM for HF include I50heart failure, I50.1left ventricular failure, I50.2systolic heart failure, I50.3diastolic heart failure, I50.4combined systolic and diastolic heart failure and I50.9heart failure, unspecified .
Heart Failure Treatment At Brigham And Women’s Hospital
Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston is one of the country’s leading cardiovascular care centers, offering patients the most advanced treatment for heart failure as well as comprehensive treatment for complex diseases of the heart, blood vessels and circulatory system. In addition to heart failure treatment, BWH provides treatment for a broad range of cardiovascular conditions, including aortic valve surgery, balloon angioplasty, and more.
The Heart & Vascular Center is staffed by some of the world’s leading cardiovascular specialists and equipped with state-of-the art technology, offering the kind of compassionate care and treatment that has helped BWH to gain a reputation as one of the top hospitals in the country.
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The Latest Advances In Heart Failure Treatment
Heart failure is a condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While there is no cure for heart failure, there are many advancements in treatment that can help improve the quality of life for those who suffer from it. Lets take a look at some of the latest treatments for heart failure, how they work, and what the benefits of each treatment are.
When Should I Get Emergency Care
Go to the ER or call 911 if you have:
- New, unexplained, and severe chest pain that comes with shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, or weakness
- Fast heart rate , especially if you are short of breath
- Shortness of breath that doesn’t get better if you rest
- Sudden weakness, or you can’t move your arms or legs
- Sudden, severe headache
- Fainting spells
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What Is The Outlook For People With Heart Failure
With the right care, heart failure may not stop you from doing the things you enjoy. Your prognosis or outlook for the future will depend on how well your heart muscle is functioning, your symptoms, and how well you respond to and follow your treatment plan.
Everyone with a long-term illness, such as heart failure, should discuss their desires for extended medical care with their doctor and family. An “advance directive” or “living will” is one way to let everyone know your wishes. A living will expresses your desires about the use of medical treatments to prolong your life. This document is prepared while you are fully competent in case you are unable to make these decisions at a later time.
Anticoagulant Medications Can Reduce The Risk Of Blood Clots And Heart Attacks
A heart attack occurs when blood flow in the blood vessels of the heart is blocked. People with congestive heart failure may benefit from taking an anticoagulant medication to lower the risk of developing blood clots.
According to an article by Dr. Allison Tsao published for The American College of Cardiology, aspirin and warfarin have been proven to lower the risk of stroke and cardiac ischemia in patients with heart failure and risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation.
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Medicines For Heart Failure
Most people with heart failure are treated with medication. Often you’ll need to take 2 or 3 different medicines.
Some of the main medicines for heart failure include:
- SGLT2 inhibitors
You may need to try a few different medicines before you find a combination that controls your symptoms but doesn’t cause unpleasant side effects.
Clinical Presentation Of Hf
The clinical presentation of HF comprises symptoms of shortness of breath /dyspnea orthopnea/SOB on lying own paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea fatigue/weakness/lethargy edema, abdominal distention and right hypochondrial pain . Due to compensatory mechanisms, early stages of HF lack specific signs however, late stages of HF demonstrate the following signs: tachycardia pedal edema increased jugular venous pressure , abnormal lung sounds S3 gallop . Other signs, such as hepatojugular reflux and ascites, are not found frequently in HF, but have a specificity of 96% and 97%, while a sensitivity of 24% and 1%, respectively . Recent research has uncovered the microvascular dysfunction and subsequent decrease in O2 supply or mismatch with the O2 supply vs. demand in HF patients. Therapeutic strategies to improve muscle microvascular and oxidative function via exercise training, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents have been proposed to be essential to provide better exercise tolerance and quality of life .
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Be The Star Of Your Team
It takes a team to manage heart failure, and you are the key player. Your heart doctor will prescribe your medications and manage other medical problems. Other team members, including nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, exercise specialists, and social workers, will also lend a hand. But it’s up to you to take your medicine, change your diet, live a healthy lifestyle, keep your follow-up appointments, and be an active member of the team.
What Medications Are Available To Improve Heart Function
Although diuretics are the first-line agents for congestive heart failure, digoxin is first-line in people who also have atrial fibrillation.
According to Medscape, digoxin produces a small improvement in cardiac output by strengthening the heart muscles. Side effects of digoxin can be serious if dosing is too high.
According to Uptodate, digoxin poisoning can result in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, delirium, weakness, and electrolyte imbalances.
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Obviously Not All Patients Need To Take All The Drugs Listed Here
Diuretics: they eliminate the fluid overload that occurs as a result of heart failure. The dose of the diuretic may vary according to the needs of the patient, who should, under certain circumstances, be able to self-manage this drug . The most common side effects are lower blood pressure, cramps and reduced blood potassium levels.
Digitalis: increases the hearts ability to contract and reduces the frequency of beats. It is helpful in improving symptoms in patients with more advanced heart failure. Digitalis levels in the blood should be checked periodically to avoid overdosing, which can cause excessive slowing of the heart rate, rhythm disturbances and nausea.
Angiotensin II receptor inhibitors: they act with a mechanism similar to that of ACE inhibitors, although coughing is less frequent among the side effects.
Antialdosteronics: these drugs are diuretics that are scarcely effective as such, but compared to the others have the peculiarity of hindering potassium loss, one of the most dreaded side effects of diuretics used to combat water retention. Recently, spironolactone, the progenitor of this pharmacological class, has been shown to prolong the life of patients with advanced heart failure.
Clinical studies have shown that the SGLT2 inhibitors that have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and have shown significant results on cardiovascular risk reduction were Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin and Dapagliflozin.
Surgical Options To Treat Underlying Causes Of Heart Failure
- Coronary artery bypass graft to prevent and treat heart failure caused by blocked arteries. During bypass surgery, blood vessels taken from another part of the body usually the leg are attached to the clogged artery to create a detour around the blockage. This is conventionally done through open-heart surgery, but some patients may be candidates for minimally invasive CABG, an alternative offered at UCSF.
- Angioplasty, another treatment for blocked arteries. A thin flexible tube called a catheter is inserted through a small incision in the groin or neck into a blood vessel. In one procedure, a balloon is introduced through the catheter into the center of a blocked blood vessel. When the balloon is inflated, the blockage material is compressed back against the walls of the artery. A small metal device, called a stent, may be inserted through the catheter to serve as a permanent barrier to keep the plaque compressed. In another type of procedure, instruments are introduced through the catheter to remove the plaque.
- Implantation of pacemakers and other devices such as artificial heart valves
- Repairing congenital heart defects
Surgical treatments for heart failure itself include:
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