Why Are Cardiovascular Diseases A Development Issue In Low
At least three-quarters of the world’s deaths from CVDs occur in low- and middle-income countries. People living in low- and middle-income countries often do not have the benefit of primary health care programmes for early detection and treatment of people with risk factors for CVDs. People in low- and middle-income countries who suffer from CVDs and other noncommunicable diseases have less access to effective and equitable health care services which respond to their needs. As a result, for many people in these countries detection is often late in the course of the disease and people die at a younger age from CVDs and other noncommunicable diseases, often in their most productive years.
The poorest people in low- and middle-income countries are most affected. At the household level, evidence is emerging that CVDs and other noncommunicable diseases contribute to poverty due to catastrophic health spending and high out-of-pocket expenditure. At the macro-economic level, CVDs place a heavy burden on the economies of low- and middle-income countries.
When Is It Time To Euthenize A Dog With Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure in dogs when is it time to euthenize? My dog has congestive heart failure. I believe he is the final stage. How do I know if he is in pain and if it is time to end his life humanely? What does your vet say? How is your dog acting? Is there still joy when you walk in the room? Does he still love his toys?
Gender Age And Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Generally, men have a higher risk than women of developing CVD in middle age. The risk rises as they get older.
However, the risk of developing CVD is an important issue for women, especially as they get older. It is not clear why women tend to get CVD at a later age than men, although it is likely that hormonal changes after menopause, combined with changes in their risk factors, play a role.
Despite your gender and age, you can reduce your risk of developing CVD if you follow a healthy lifestyle and take medicines as prescribed by your doctor.
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The Major Risk Factors
There are many risk factors for CAD and some can be controlled but not others. The risk factors that can be controlled are: High BP high blood cholesterol levels smoking diabetes overweight or obesity lack of physical activity unhealthy diet and stress. Those that cannot be controlled are: Age sex family history and race.
Hypertension is one of the risks in the development of CHD. The American President Roosevelt died from cerebral hemorrhage, sequelae of hypertension.
Old myths corrected
Many old physicians thought that high BP was necessary to force blood through the stiffened arteries of older persons and that it was a normal element of aging. The medical community believed that a permissible systolic BP was 100 plus the participant’s age in millimeters of mercury. For those aged > 70 years, some considered the acceptable upper limits of normal BP to be 210 mmHg systolic and 120 mmHg diastolic.
It was considered appropriate to ignore benign essential hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension. I remember that I was taught in medical school that diastolic pressure was a superior measure of blood pressure. The cardiovascular hazard of hypertension was believed to derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure component. Consequently, elevated systolic pressure was considered harmless, especially in the elderly.
The harmful effects of smoking on the heart can be appreciated in the following statistics:
Problems Affecting The Blood Vessels
Problems with how the hearts blood vessels work can cause coronary heart disease. For example, the blood vessels may not respond to signals that the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. Normally, the blood vessels widen to allow more blood flow when a person is physically active or under stress. But if you have coronary heart disease, the size of these blood vessels may not change, or the blood vessels may even narrow.
The cause of these problems is not fully clear. But it may involve:
- Damage or injury to the walls of the arteries or tiny blood vessels from chronic inflammation, high blood pressure, or diabetes.
- Molecular changes that are part of the normal aging process. Molecular changes affect the way genes and proteins are controlled inside cells.
In nonobstructive coronary artery disease, damage to the inner walls of the coronary arteries can cause them to spasm . This is called vasospasm. The spasm causes the arteries to narrow temporarily and blocks blood flow to the heart.
These problems can also happen in the tiny blood vessels in the heart, causing coronary microvascular disease . Coronary microvascular disease can happen with or without obstructive or nonobstructive coronary artery disease.
Learn more about the important role that inflammation, which is the bodys reaction to an injury, plays in the development of coronary heart disease.
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Beginnings Of Our Understanding
For thousands of years, our knowledge of the causes of CVD and its therapy was static. It was only in the last half of the 20th century that research into the causes of CVDs accelerated, and with it, new therapies were found.
What stimulated this research? The premature death in 1945 of the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt from hypertensive heart disease and stroke stimulated this research in USA. Deaths from CVD and stroke reached epidemic proportions in the USA at that time which induced the Americans to take the lead in cardiovascular research.
The death of President Roosevelt illustrated how little we knew about the general causes of heart disease and stroke. Therefore, a health project was set up in the USA the FHS to identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD. FHS was under the direction of the National Heart Institute, now known as the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Researchers followed the development of CHD over a long period in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke. The small town of Framingham in Massachusetts, USA was chosen due to its geographical proximity to the many cardiologists at Harvard Medical School. Furthermore, the residents had already participated in the Framingham tuberculosis demonstration study two decades earlier.
Heart Attack Risk Factors You Can Control:
Cholesterol. Healthy levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol help prevent arterial plaque buildup. Lifestyle changes can steady the balance, but you may also need medication.
Diet. Healthful food is a highly effective weapon against heart disease. Focus on fruits, vegetable and grains – as well as low-fat dairy, poultry and fish. Limit red meat and sugar.
Drinking. Alcohol can amplify cardiac health risks, raise triglycerides and cause irregular heartbeat. Consume safely by having no more than two drinks per day for men .
Blood Pressure. High blood pressure forces the heart to work harder, causing damage over time. If your blood pressure is higher than 120/80, your heart attack risk is considered elevated.
Diabetes. Patients with diabetes have twice the risk of coronary heart disease. That’s because high blood sugar, if uncontrolled, can lead to increased plaque in your arteries.
Smoking. Smoking is directly related to one in four heart attacks. People who smoke have a heart attack risk two to three times higher than nonsmokers.
Physical Activity. Exercise can lower blood pressure, cholesterol and weight. Be active every day – with three to four 40 minute sessions of moderate to vigorous activity each week.
Weight. Being overweight or obese is linked to several related heart attack risk factors. Your doctor can help you determine an ideal goal weight based on height and age.
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What Behaviors Increase The Risk Of Heart Disease
Your lifestyle can increase your risk for heart disease.
- Eating a diet high in saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol has been linked to heart disease and related conditions, such as atherosclerosis. Also, too much salt in the diet can raise blood pressure.
- Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease. It can also increase the chances of having other medical conditions that are risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Regular physical activity can lower your risk for heart disease.
- Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure levels and the risk for heart disease. It also increases levels of triglycerides, a fatty substance in the blood which can increase the risk for heart disease.
- Women should have no more than 1 drink a day.
- Men should have no more than 2 drinks a day.
Heart Disease And Stroke Risk Factors
There is no single cause for CVD, but there are risk factors that increase your chance of a heart attack or stroke. There are modifiable factors and non-modifiable factors .
Heart disease and stroke risk factors that you can change include:
- Management of depression.
Social isolation and lack of social support are risk factors for CVD that can be changed, although it can seem challenging. One way to help with loneliness is to learn how to improve your social connections.
Risk factors you canât change include increasing age, being male, being post-menopausal and having a family history of CVD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are also at increased risk of CVD.
The good news is that you can reduce your overall risk of developing CVD by leading a healthy lifestyle and taking medicines as prescribed by your doctor.
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Does Smoking Increase Your Risk Of Heart Disease
Smoking is a major risk for several diseases including heart disease, stroke, and several cancers. Even low-tar cigarettes and light smoking can increase the risk of heart disease substantially. There are now several alternative approaches to helping people stop smoking. These include nicotine-replacement patches and gum as well as oral medication.
If you are able to stop smoking, your risk of a heart attack or stroke decreases within a few weeks. The risk goes down to that of a nonsmoker within about two years. In addition, a lot of patients comment that they feel healthier and have more energy after theyve stopped smoking.
Maintain A Healthy Weight
If you’re overweight or obese, a combination of regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight. Aim to get your BMI below 25.
If you’re struggling to lose weight, your GP or practice nurse can help you come up with a weight loss plan and recommend services in your area.
Read more about losing weight and how your GP can help.
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Understanding Your Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score
In the past, your doctor may have measured and treated each of your CVD risk factors one at a time. It is now recommended that overall risk be assessed to determine your personal heart disease and stroke-risk score.
Risk score puts many of the risk factors together. This is a bit like putting all the pieces of a puzzle together so you can see the whole picture. By looking at the whole picture, your doctor can discuss ways to reduce your risk of stroke or heart attack. Risk reduction strategies include medications, surgery and lifestyle changes.
However, if you are already known to be at high risk , a risk score will not need to be calculated. Your doctor will tell you if you are in this group and advise you about what to do to reduce your risk.
What To Do If You Get A Symptom Of Covid
- Symptoms of COVID-19 can:
- take up to 14 days to appear after exposure to the virus
- be very mild or more serious
- vary from person to person
We can all do our part in preventing the spread of COVID-19. For more information: Canada.ca/coronavirus or contact 1-833-784-4397
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Being Overweight And Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Being overweight or obese increases your risk of a number of health problems, including:
- Sleep problems, such as sleep apnoea.
- Certain types of cancer.
Carrying extra weight around your middle is more of a health risk, so it is especially important for you to lose weight if this is the case.
To achieve a healthy body weight, balance the energy coming into your body through food and drinks, with the energy being used up by your body through regular physical activity.
Blacks Still At Increased Risk Of Heart Disease
Heart disease, including comprises cardiovascular illness & strokes, is the leading cause of death in the United States, and it is well that all disproportionately affect African-Americans.
According to new research, black Americans have indeed been disproportionately affected by cardiovascular illness hazard variables for the last 20 years, including societal challenges such as employment and poor incomes accounting for much of it.
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Can A Dog Have Congestive Heart Failure
However, its important to recognize the symptoms of congestive heart failure in dogs so that you can begin treatment promptly, giving your beloved pup the best chance of a longer life. What Is Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs? Congestive heart failure refers to the inability of the heart to pump blood adequately throughout the body.
Heart Disease: Who Is At Risk
Heart disease is the leading killer of men and women in the U.S., and around the world. Your risk for heart disease is influenced by factors like age, gender, race, and genetics, as well as certain conditions and behaviors including:
If you smoke, or are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke, your risk for heart disease increases. The chemicals in tobacco smoke cause plaque buildup in arteries, increase blood pressure, and increase the risk of blood clots.
Cholesterol is needed to make hormones, vitamin D, and digestive substances in the body. However, cholesterol levels that are out of balance can cause many complications. There are two types of cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins . The higher the LDL level, the greater the risk of heart disease. The higher the HDL level, the lower the risk for heart disease.
High Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood pushing against artery walls. Over time, high blood pressure weakens arteries and increases the risk of heart disease.
Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesnt make enough insulin, or doesnt use insulin properly, which causes a high blood sugar level in the body. Over time, high blood sugar increases the risk for plaque buildup in the arteries.
As body weight increases, the heart must work harder to meet the bodys needs. As body mass increases, so does the risk for heart disease.
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Who Has Heart Disease In Canada
How many Canadians live with heart disease?
- According to the most recent data from 2012/13, about 2.4 million Canadian adults aged 20 years and older live with diagnosed ischemic heart disease, including 578,000 with a history of a heart attack.
- About 669,600 Canadian adults aged 40 years and older live with diagnosed heart failure.
How many Canadians are newly diagnosed with heart disease each year?
- About 158,700 Canadian adults aged 20 years and older received a new diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Specifically, about 63,200 adults had a first heart attack.
- Approximately 92,900 Canadian adults aged 40 years and older received a new diagnosis of heart failure.
Five Facts About Heart Disease To Live By
1. Keep Moving
If you havent been exercising at all, its never too late to start. The older we get, we are tempted to find excuses to avoid physical activity. If exercise is new to you, talk with your doctor about which activities are preferable. Even short walks offer advantages to your heart.
According to research by the American Heart Association, physically active middle-aged adults have a low risk of sudden cardiac arrest. The results confirm that there are significant benefits to middle-agers who exercise.
If you are in your 50s, try for a minimum of 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week. If you are in your 60s or beyond, try for 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity each week.
2. Your Age Alone May Put You at Increased Risk for Heart Disease
Your risk for heart disease increases with age, especially with people of color and for those who are over 65. While the average age for a heart attack is 64.5 for men, and 70.3 for women, nearly 20 percent of those who die of heart disease are under the age of 65.
3. Your Other Risk Factors are Important
Know your personal risk factors. Some you are born with and some you cannot control:
Risk factors that you may be able to do something about include:
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What Health Conditions Increase The Risk Of Heart Disease
High blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease. It is a medical condition that happens when the pressure of the blood in your arteries and other blood vessels is too high. The high pressure, if not controlled, can affect your heart and other major organs of your body, including your kidneys and brain.
High blood pressure is often called a silent killer because it usually has no symptoms. The only way to know whether you have high blood pressure is to measure your blood pressure. You can lower your blood pressure with lifestyle changes or with medicine to reduce your risk for heart disease and heart attack. Learn more about blood pressure.
Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made by the liver or found in certain foods. Your liver makes enough for your bodys needs, but we often get more cholesterol from the foods we eat.
If we take in more cholesterol than the body can use, the extra cholesterol can build up in the walls of the arteries, including those of the heart. This leads to narrowing of the arteries and can decrease the blood flow to the heart, brain, kidneys, and other parts of the body.
There are two main types of blood cholesterol: LDL cholesterol, which is considered to be bad cholesterol because it can cause plaque buildup in your arteries, and HDL cholesterol, which is considered to be good cholesterol because higher levels provide some protection against heart disease.