Monday, April 22, 2024

Coughing Congestive Heart Failure

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What Is Heart Failure In Dogs

An Osmosis Video: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Explained

Heart failure is a complex condition that can develop from congenital or acquired heart disease in dogs. Depending on the specific disease process, it can affect the left and right sides of the heart, manifesting in respiratory signs and weakness due to:

  • Fluid retention: Congestion sometimes called backward failure
  • Pump failure: Low cardiac output sometimes called forward failure.

While the underlying heart disease can vary depending on age and breed, chronic heart failure management for degenerative mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy initially relies on a combination of a diuretic, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and pimobendan, with additional medications added as necessary.

Tips For Managing Congestive Heart Failure End

You may be asking, How can I provide comfort to my loved one as they experience the end-of-life signs of congestive heart failure? Its only natural that you as a loved one and/or caregiver will want to be as helpful as possible, and ensure that your loved one is experiencing as little pain as possible. Heres some ways you can help:

  • Communicate with the doctors and healthcare professionals: Your loved one may be too weak, or simply forget, to communicate their symptoms to the doctors and nurses. You can help by sharing this information with them in order to make sure your loved one gets what they need.
  • Provide comfort: Sometimes it is just as simple as spending time with your loved one while watching a TV show, or talking about things they love. These conversations can help in alleviating some of their depression and anxiety.
  • Help them remember to take their medicine: There will likely be various pills and medications that your loved one needs to take. You can help by assisting your loved one in staying on schedule.

Buildup Of Excess Fluid In Body Tissues

As the blood flow from the heart slows down, blood returning to the heart through the veins pools up, which leads to fluid retention and is reflected as swelling in the feet, ankles, legs or abdomen or weight gain.

If you are undergoing a heart treatment and your cardiologist has recommended modifications in diuretic medications, then you should do that. Else, consult your cardiologist as soon as possible.

Read about What is a heart attack and Steps to Prevent Heart Failure

Credihealth is Indias No.1 medical assistance company and has served more than 100,000 cardiac patients in India. Credihealth helps people find the right doctor at trusted hospitals, book priority appointment and get an estimated cost for treatment. A team of medical experts talk to the patients, understand their symptoms and suggest specialist doctors and hospitals for their treatment.

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Cough And Its Hemodynamic Impact

The deep and vigorous cough results in significant fluctuations in both intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressure, up to 250450 mmHg and 100 mmHg, respectively. It may activate both thoracic pump mechanism and abdominal pump, that enhances venous return and moves blood to other organs . A decreased intrathoracic inspiratory pressure in the inspiratory phase leads to an increase in the right ventricle filling. It is worth mentioning, however, that excessively negative pressure in the thoracic cavity may yield in large vein collapse . During an expulsive phase of coughing, increased intrathoracic pressure compresses the heart and the large vessels and acts as an additional factor of blood ejection from the heart and its shift to the peripheral vessels . In healthy subjects, the voluntary cough may cause a shift of a significant amount of blood thus increasing the blood pressure. However, the situation changes shortly after cough termination.

During continuous coughing, the circulatory effects are similar to Valsalva maneuver. Termination of the coughing bout is associated with the period of acute hypotension accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction . The best characterized clinical entity caused by the hemodynamic consequences of cough is a cough-induced syncope.

Diagnosing Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms &  Life Expectancy

Patients with CHF may have fluid in the lungs or rapid heart rate. Diagnostic testing is needed to provide a firm diagnosis. The medical tests used to diagnose heart failure include:

  • Chest X-ray detects damage to the heart and lungs
  • EKG examines the hearts electrical activity and can reveal previous heart attack
  • Exercise stress test measures heart activity while on a stationary bike or treadmill or may also be done using a drug that mimics the stress produced by exercise
  • Echocardiogram an ultrasound test that reveals heart structure and function
  • Blood tests can reveal strain on the heart and other organs
  • MRI performed to assess the hearts structure and blood flow
  • Nuclear scans allows doctors to visualize the heart and blood vessels
  • Coronary angiogram reveals blockages in the hearts arteries
  • Ejection fraction measures the amount of blood pumped out of the heart each time it beats

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Initial Stages Of Chf

In the initial, mild stage A, there are underlying high-risk factors for CHF such as smoking or high blood pressure. However, the affected person has no symptoms or limitations at rest or with physical activity and there are no signs of CHF on evaluation by a doctor.

In stage B, the person develops mild symptoms of fatigue, shortness of breath, or heart palpitations with routine physical activity. There are minor signs of heart dysfunction on a doctor’s evaluation. There might also be a mild, intermittent collection of fluid, known as edema, in the ankles and feet.

Side Effects Of Ace Inhibitors

While ACE inhibitors are usually tolerated quite well, certain side effects may occur, including:

  • Cough: The most prominent side effect of ACE inhibitors is a dry, hacking cough, which may be seen in up to 20% of people given these drugs. While not a dangerous problem, this side effect can be bothersome and usually requires discontinuation of the drug.
  • Hypotension : ACE inhibitors may reduce blood pressure too much, producing symptoms of weakness, dizziness, or syncope . This problem can usually be avoided by starting with a low dose and gradually building up to higher doses.
  • Impaired kidney function: Especially in people who have underlying kidney disease, the use of ACE inhibitors can further reduce kidney function. For this reason, kidney function should be monitored in people who have kidney disease and are beginning ACE inhibitors.
  • High blood potassium : ACE inhibitors can increase blood potassium levels. While this effect is usually very modest and not medically significant, in about 3% of people, potassium levels can become too high.
  • Angioedema: Very rarely, people taking ACE inhibitors can experience angioedema, a severe allergic-like reaction that can become quite dangerous.

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Effectiveness In Heart Failure

Several major clinical trials have looked at the use of ACE inhibitors in heart failure treatment. They have shown that ACE inhibitors significantly reduce the need for hospitalization, improve survival, and lower the risk of heart attacks. Symptoms of heart failure such as dyspnea and fatigue also improve.

Current guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association strongly recommend a renin-angiotensin system blocker for those with heart failure with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction . ACE inhibitors are one of three recommended first-line therapy options.

Other treatment options include angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers .

The ACC and AHA now recommend the use of ARNIs over ACE inhibitors in those with mild to moderate heart failure symptoms. However, ACE inhibitors may still be preferred in certain cases.

What Is Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure in pets

Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the bodys demands. This impairment can result from several pre-existing cardiac disorders.

Symptoms of congestive heart failure include:

  • Fatigue
  • Edema
  • Wheezing or chronic coughing.

When the heart cannot pump blood effectively, any returning circulation from the heart to the lungs can get backed up. It can result in pulmonary congestion, hence the name congestive heart failure. This condition is the main reason behind a chronic cough.

Cardiac cough or heart cough can also be a side effect of certain medications used for treating heart failure, but it is necessary to have your doctor figure out what is causing it.

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What Are The Common Early Symptoms Of Heart Failure In Adults

Most of the common symptoms of heart failure are also associated with other conditions.

But if you have any symptoms that are recurrent or persistent, or if you have two or more common early signs of heart failure, its a good idea to seek medical care. A medical professional can assess your symptoms and determine if heart failure is the cause.

Common early symptoms of heart failure include:

  • shortness of breath
  • trouble sleeping, or sleeping on extra pillows
  • waking up at night short of breath
  • loss of appetite or nausea
  • heart palpitations

Next, well explain a bit more about why each of these symptoms can be caused by heart failure.

Living With Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure , also sometimes called heart failure, is a condition where the heart does not pump blood efficiently enough to meet the bodys need. Poor contraction of the heart muscle prevents the blood from being efficiently pumped out to other parts of the body. The poor pumping action of the heart means less blood is being pushed out, and blood returning to the heart accumulates, leading to congestion. As a result, fluids build-up in the body, particularly in the ankles, feet and lungs. This risk of kidney failure also increases as fluid and sodium accumulate.

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Both Are Chronic And Have Periodic Flare

Each of these conditions is chronic and cannot be cured. But you can have periods of relative stability when symptoms are not too bothersome. At times, though, the symptoms can worsen or flare-up. This is called an exacerbation.

The difference is what causes these exacerbations. With COPD, triggers are often environmentally-related:

  • Exposure to germs that cause respiratory infections
  • Breathing in cold dry air
  • Exposure to air pollution
  • Inhaling strong fumes or smoke

With CHF, factors that cause flare-ups are often more related to lifestyle or other health issues.

  • Eating the wrong foods, for example, too many salty foods
  • Drinking too much water
  • Having a heart attack or stroke

In both cases, exacerbations can also occur when medications are not taken as prescribed.

Arbs As A Substitute For Ace Inhibitors

Coughing and Heart Failure: Cardiac Cough Explained

Angiotensin II receptor blockers are similar to ACE inhibitors in that they interrupt the RAAS cascade and reduce the effect of the angiotensin II enzyme. Because ARBs only infrequently cause cough and angioedema, they are sometimes used as a substitute in people who have had these adverse effects with ACE inhibitors.

ARBs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of heart failure, though to a lesser extent than ACE inhibitors. In addition, ARBs are roughly as effective as ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension.

Commonly used ARB drugs include:

  • Atacand

Several other ARB drugs are available as well.

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Cough And Its Effect On Heart Electrophysiology

Although the primary role of the lung afferent nerve fibers is to modulate the breathing pattern , activation of some of their subpopulations also causes the reflex changes in the cardiovascular system . For example, the stimulation of the pulmonary C-fibers may result in bradycardia and systemic and pulmonary hypotension . This vagal stimulation may entail a depression of automaticity of both the sinus and atrioventricular nodes, prolongation of the refractory period of the junctional tissues and depression of sinoatrial and atrioventricular conductivity . These interactions are mainly related to parasympathetic activation, however coexisting withdrawal of sympathetic influence is also considered.

Besides the reflex bradycardia, a forceful cough may cause sinus tachycardia. Wei and Harris documented a chronotropic response to intrathoracic pressure changes generated by cough. In their study group, three forceful coughs performed over a period of 3 sec resulted in a reproducible increase in the rate of sinus rhythm . This phenomenon was found to be dependent on patients age, with an advanced age resulting in a decline in both the amplitude and rapidity of the chronotropic response of sinoatrial node to cough .

What Is Kennel Cough

Kennel Cough or Infectious Tracheobronchitis is an all-encompassing term for upper respiratory illness in dogs and is the number one reason for coughing in dogs.

Frequently a dogs immune system has already been affected by a virus such as:

  • Canine influenza,
  • Parainfluenza
  • Distemper.

The kennel cough bacteria Bordetella loves to latch on to one of these viruses for a free ride to the upper respiratory system, causing a persistent and prolonged cough.

Kennel cough can spread quickly despite the most valiant sanitation efforts due to its ability to infect through aerosol or droplets in the air.

Here are the most common ways dogs contract and transmit kennel cough:

  • Aerosol from sneezes and saliva
  • Sharing contaminated water & food bowls
  • Sharing dog toys & bedding
  • Endocarditis
    Sharing of water and food bowls Fluid around the heart

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    Swelling And Weight Gain

    Your feet, ankles, and abdomen are all areas of the body that can swell. Its possible to have some swelling after a workout or on a very hot day. When swelling occurs, its called edema.

    Edema happens in heart failure because your kidneys arent able to properly filter sodium. Your heart then releases chemicals that cause the body to hold onto fluid. You might notice that your clothes or shoes no longer fit right, or that youve gained weight unexpectedly or quickly.

    What Should The Caregiver Remember When The Patient Is At The End

    Congestive Heart Failure & Enlarged Heart in Dogs

    Various important decisions of the patients life have to be taken by the caregivers surrounding the patient. Great responsibilities come up on the caregiver as the patient gradually becomes completely dependent. The caregiver should always be on his toes because there can arise an emergency at any point of time. The patient may have to be admitted to the hospital frequently during the last stage. Symptoms can worsen overnight and the caregivers should be prepared for it.

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    What Causes Chronic Coughing

    Smoking is a significant cause. Most cigarette smokers develop a chronic smokers cough. Chemical irritation is responsible, but the same toxic chemicals that cause the easy smokers cough may result in far more severe conditions, such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and lung cancer. Chronic cough is a cause of concern for smokers.

    A lingering cough can be a worry for nonsmokers. Fortunately, benign issues are responsible for many chronic coughs in nonsmokers. Benign or not, persistent coughing can lead to worry, embarrassment, fatigue, and much more. That is why chronic coughs should be diagnosed and treated until they linger too long.

    Dozens of conditions can result in a recurrent, lingering cough. The lions share is due to only five: postnasal drip, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease , chronic bronchitis, and therapy with ACE inhibitors, used for hypertension. Many individuals have several of those conditions, but in nonsmokers, the first three, independently or in combination, account for almost all chronic coughs. The significant causes of long-term coughing are given below.

    Major causes of persistent cough

    There are many possible common causes of chronic cough:

    Postnasal drip

    When To See A Healthcare Provider

    You should contact your healthcare provider if:

    • You have heart failure and are coughing
    • You start coughing soon after a change in heart-failure medications or dosage adjustment
    • You aren’t diagnosed with heart disease but have a cough and other symptoms that could point to heart failure
    • You have lung disease and develop a new type of cough or worsening cough

    A cardiac cough can easily be mistaken for a cough with a different cause, such as a cold or allergies. It’s safest not to make assumptions about the cause and to it get checked out.

    Do not attempt to self-treat a cough with an over-the-counter cough suppressant or other drug. The active ingredients in some of these, like pseudoephedrine, can raise blood pressure and worsen the symptoms of heart failure.

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    Copd And Congestive Heart Failure

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    COPD and Congestive Heart Failure are two of the most common chronic health conditions and also among the top 3 leading causes of death in the U.S. Here’s the scoop – they are often connected. That’s right. People who have COPD have a 20% or greater risk for developing CHF and CHF is a leading cause of death in people with COPD.1 It’s also important to note that the two conditions often have very similar signs and symptoms, so it can be hard to tell them apart.

    How To Help A Dog Coughing From Congestive Heart Failure

    Congestive Heart Failure &  Cardiac Cough

    The best way to help a dog coughing from congestive heart failure is with furosemide, a low-salt diet, and vitamin supplements.

    1) Furosemide

    Furosemide is a great way to help a dog with congestive heart failure that is coughing a lot. This is because Furosemide reduces the swelling in the heart, while also removing excess liquid that is in the lungs. You can buy Furosemide here.

    2) Low-salt diet

    Switching your dog to a diet that is low in salt will definitely help him/her stop coughing from congestive heart failure. A low salt diet helps remove excess liquid throughout the body, especially in the lungs and kidney. You can buy low-salt dog food here.

    3) Vitamin B and Vitamin E supplements

    Both of these vitamins can help remove the excess liquid from your dogs lungs, while also controlling the inflammation of the larynx. The cheapest vitamin B and vitamin E supplements are .

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