Monday, September 26, 2022

Do Stimulants Increase Heart Rate

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Risks Of Other Stimulant Drugs

Stimulants Mnemonic for MCAT

Other drugs such as Adderall also present a potential danger.

Adderall contains a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which are central nervous system stimulants that affect chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control.

It can cause side effects other than withdrawal or crashing. Taking Adderall in high doses is called chronic intoxication and can cause feelings of euphoria and excitement. This can lead to addiction.

Other side effects of taking the drug at a high dosage include a skin condition, insomnia, hyperactivity, irritability, and changes in personality.

Granger notes that clinicians dont have measurable proof that Adderall is harmful. Its relatively safe, he said, but theres still some risk.

Those risks increase when the drug is overused, he said.

Other drugs, like asthma drugs used as inhalers, are stimulants as well, Granger said. There have been reports that asthma drugs may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmia.

Drugs that stimulate the adrenals are a big public health issue, he said, urging caution and awareness of risks.

But the picture is not entirely bleak. There are some ways we can reverse aging, Reece said.

The most significant and meaningful way of undoing arterial damage is with plenty of exercise better than any pill, according to Reece.

Research shows that drugs make people old fat, he said.

Sort of like Dorian Gray.

Is It Safe To Use Stimulants With Other Medications

Stimulants should not be used with other medications unless authorized by a physician. Patients also should be aware of the dangers associated with mixing stimulants and OTC cold medicines that contain decongestants, as combining these substances may cause blood pressure to become dangerously high or lead to irregular heart rhythms.

How Do Stimulants Increase Heart Rate

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How Do Stimulants Affect Athletes

Although stimulants can boost physical performance and promote aggressiveness on the field, they have side effects that can impair athletic performance, including: Nervousness and irritability, which make it hard to concentrate on the game. Insomnia, which can prevent an athlete from getting needed sleep. Dehydration.

How Depressants Affect The Body

PPT

Depressants act in an opposite manner to stimulants. Instead of speeding up most body processes, they slow them down. Depressants are sometimes referred to as sedatives or tranquilizers. They lower blood pressure and slow down brain activity, heart rate and breathing.

Depressants generally affect the neurotransmitter GABA. Commonly used depressant prescription drugs include those prescribed to treat insomnia and anxiety. These include benzodiazepine drugs like Valium and Xanax, non-benzodiazepine sleeping pills like Ambien or Lunesta and barbiturates like phenobarbital. Marijuana is a depressant as is alcohol.

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Speed And Other Recreational Stimulants Tied To Heart Damage

By Lisa Rapaport, Reuters Health

4 Min Read

– Middle-aged adults who use recreational amphetamines like speed, ecstasy or ice may develop a prematurely aging heart and experience health problems normally associated with older people, a recent study suggests.

People may crave the euphoric feelings produced by amphetamines, but these drugs have long been linked to heart attack, stroke, artery wall damage, bleeding in the brain, abnormal heart rhythm and sudden cardiac death, said lead study author Dr. Stuart Reece of the University of Western Australia in Crawley.

It makes sense that all these different issues are linked by an underlying acceleration of the aging effect, Reece said by email. We found that the effect was very considerable indeed.

Amphetamines are a stimulant and they send whats known as the sympathetic nervous system, or fight or flight hormone adrenaline into overdrive. Previous research has linked these drugs to premature aging of the skin, and the current study suggests amphetamines might also prematurely age the heart.

For the study, researchers measured blood flow through a main artery in the upper arm and forearm for 713 people in their 30s and 40s at a clinic for substance misuse. Arteries harden with age.

Each patient was asked about drug use and placed in one of four groups: non-smokers, smokers, amphetamine users and methadone users. Methadone is a substitute for heroin given to people trying to overcome addiction to that illegal drug.

Peripheral Vasculopathy And Raynauds Phenomenon

Adderall XR is associated with peripheral vasculopathy, a circulation disorder that lessens blood flow to the blood vessels in the arms, legs and feet.

Raynauds phenomenon is a related disease also connected to stimulant use that causes blood vessels to narrow in response to cold or stress. It usually affects the fingers and toes. Affected areas turn white or blue from lack of blood flow. When blood flow returns it causes tingles or throbbing. In severe cases, it can cause tissue death or sores.

Symptoms are usually mild and improve after stopping treatment.

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How Can People Get Treatment For Prescription Stimulant Addiction

Behavioral therapies, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management , can be effective in helping to treat people with prescription stimulant addiction. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps modify the patient’s drug-use expectations and behaviors, and it can effectively manage triggers and stress. Contingency management provides vouchers or small cash rewards for positive behaviors such as staying drug-free. Read more about drug addiction treatment in our Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction DrugFacts.

Stimulants Can Prematurely Age The Heart

Why Does Cocaine Increase One’s Heart Rate?

According to Healthline, a study shows that the stimulant amphetamine can prematurely age the heart. The study, which included more than 700 participants in their 30s and 40s, measured the stiffness of participants arteries, which is a sign of an aging heart. The study revealed that even though their outward appearance appeared fine, their cardiovascular systems and arteries showed a higher level of aging than the arteries of tobacco smokers and methadone users. Abusing stimulants is also commonly associated with strokes and aneurysms. Overstimulating the heart can be especially harmful to users as they age.

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Amphetamine Users Had Older Hearts Than Smokers Methadone Users

Findings indicated that compared with the people who smoked and used methadone, the cardiovascular system of the amphetamine users appeared to be aging at a much quicker rate.

These results remained significant when other known cardiovascular risk factors such as weight, cholesterol levels, and the inflammation indicator C-reactive protein were taken into consideration.

As exposure to amphetamine is often repetitive and prolonged, the heart is exposed to the effects of the stimulant on a behavioral, chronic, and long-term basis. It is, therefore, conceivable that stimulant abusers do physiological and cardiovascular harm, says the team. They note that it is not clear to what extent the damage might be reversible.

The authors say that the results confirm their concerns that amphetamine abuse increases heart age. However, as the study is observational, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding cause and effect.

The aging process suggests a power function over time, as many physiological processes begin to fail over the course of a lifespan progressively. However, the new findings suggest that stimulant abuse may accelerate the degeneration of the physiological systems. The authors write:

If, as has been demonstrated, the damage from stimulant abuse is actually a power function of time, then this, in turn, implies that the gathering global stimulant epidemic carries a further message of urgency which has largely not been appreciated.

The Safety Of Stimulant Medication Use In Cardiovascular And Arrhythmia Patients

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First-line stimulant class medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations are FDA approved for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and narcolepsy. It is estimated that 4.4% of US adults experience some symptoms and disabilities of ADHD. However adults receive 32% of all issued stimulant prescriptions.1 Off-label treatment for conditions including weight management, fatigue related to depression, stroke, traumatic brain injury, or hyper-somnolence due to Obstructive Sleep Apnea may account for the high prevalence of stimulant use in adults. Such conditions are frequently associated with history or risk of cardiovascular disease. Of note, OSA and other forms of sleep-disordered breathing have unfavorable effects on cardiovascular physiology, predisposing affected individuals to cardiovascular disease and cardiac arrhythmias.2,3

Table 1: Stimulant and Stimulant-like Medications

Stimulants

Excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, OSA, SWD

*Not included in the 2011 FDA Safety Communication

Few reports have been made of arrhythmic events associated with modafinil use. One published case report details a 54-year old male who developed premature ventricular contractions with modafinil usage that resolved after discontinuation.28 Upon rechallenge with modafinil, the PVCs returned after 10-days of treatment, and resolved once again after re-discontinuation.

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Do Prescription Stimulants Make You Smarter

Some people take prescription stimulants to try to improve mental performance. Teens and college students sometimes misuse them to try to get better grades, and older adults misuse them to try to improve their memory. Taking prescription stimulants for reasons other than treating ADHD or narcolepsy could lead to harmful health effects, such as addiction, heart problems, or psychosis.

How Do Stimulants Affect The Brain And Body

Drugs

Stimulants, such as dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate , act in the brain similarly to a family of key brain neurotransmitters called monoamines, which include norepinephrine and dopamine. Stimulants enhance the effects of these chemicals in the brain. The associated increase in dopamine can induce a feeling of euphoria when stimulants are taken nonmedically. Stimulants also increase blood pressure and heart rate, constrict blood vessels, increase blood glucose, and open up breathing passages.

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What Makes Your Heart Rate Faster

Dr. Glen Elliottadhd stimulantstratteratenexDr. Carla Enriquezephedrinenasal spraysadhd

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What Are The Health Effects Of Stimulant Use Disorder

Stimulants increase the amount of specific neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine, which leads to heightened alertness and feelings of euphoria. At the same time, stimulants elevate a users blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. Heavy use can cause irregular heartbeat, heart failure and seizures, and, in some cases, death.

A user coming down from the high of a stimulant may experience restlessness, anxiety and insomnia.

Cocaine and methamphetamines are highly addictive, and withdrawal symptoms include strong cravings for the drug, mood swings, insomnia, hallucinations and headaches.

Effects of chronic stimulant use may include paranoia, anxiety, confusion and decreased sexual function, as well as potential damage to the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Chronic methamphetamine use has additional mental and physical side effects such as aggression, hallucinations, tooth decay, sores, weight loss and aging skin.

As with some other illegal drugs, stimulant use can increase a persons risk of suicide.

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Stimulants Can Cause A Brain Imbalance

Stimulants rely on chemical messengers in the brain called neurotransmitters to jump-start the nervous system, the brains control center. But instead of maintaining the brains chemical balance, stimulants increase the activity of two brain chemicals while leaving other neurotransmitters alone, creating an imbalance of neurotransmitters.

Stimulants over-activate dopamine and norepinephrine. Dopamine plays an important role in how we feel and experience pleasure. Dopamine also helps regulate our motivation and determines what we focus on and find interesting. Too much dopamine can cause anxiety, insomnia, mania, delusions, and paranoia. Norepinephrine is a stress hormone, increasing your heart rate and providing energy to your body. When overactivated, norepinephrine can lead to anxiety, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, jitteriness, excessive sweating, and organ stress.

Adult Adhd Medications And Their Cardiovascular Implications

How Does Caffeine Work as a Stimulant?

A. Sinha

1Division of Cardiology, Saint Lukes University Health Network, 801 Ostrum Street, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA

2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20060, USA

3Department of Internal Medicine, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20060, USA

4Division of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20060, USA

5Division of Cardiology, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20060, USA

Abstract

1. Introduction

Adults with ADHD are possibly at higher risk for developing unhealthy lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking and obesity, and have a greater probability of chronic substance misuse. Studies suggest that adult ADHD patients are more likely to experiment with licit and illicit substances, especially at earlier ages, and exhibit risky substance use patterns and subsequently develop substance use disorders . ADHD patients also have cooccurring psychiatric disorders, like anxiety , mood disorder , poor impulse control , and substance use disorders . These individuals can be on a number of medications along with stimulant drugs effect of combination drug therapy on cardiovascular system has not been well studied.

2. Case

3. Discussion

4. Conclusion

Consent

Patients consent was obtained for the publication of this work.

Disclosure

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What Are The Other Health Effects Of Prescription Stimulants

Repeated misuse of prescription stimulants, even within a short period, can cause psychosis, anger, or paranoia. If the drug is injected, it is important to note that sharing drug injection equipment and having impaired judgment from drug misuse can increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

What Is The Main Reason Athletes Use Steroids

Anabolic steroids help build muscle tissue and increase body mass by acting like the bodys natural male hormone, testosterone. However, steroids cannot improve an athletes agility or skill. Many factors determine athletic ability, including genetics, body size, age, sex, diet and how hard the athlete trains.

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Combining Alcohol And Energy Drinks

Although it is dangerous, it is not uncommon for people to combine multiple drugs in an attempt to enhance positive effects or counteract unwanted ones. A popular stimulant/depressant combination is alcohol with energy drinks. The combination is known by many names, including Red Bombs and Vodka Bulls.

An article distributed by the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association notes the following dangers of combining the products:

  • Consuming energy drinks with alcohol reduces drinkers ability to accurately judge their intoxication levels. Drinkers of the combination product are four times more likely to report an intention to drive after drinking than those who drink alcohol alone.
  • Individuals who consume the combination drink for a longer period of time, consume more total drinks and have higher levels of intoxication. They are three times more likely to have a blood alcohol content higher than .08%.
  • People who consume alcohol with energy drinks are twice as likely as those who drink alcohol alone to be taken advantage of sexually or to take sexual advantage of someone else.
  • Drinkers of alcohol and energy drinks are more likely to be hurt or injured and to require medical treatment.

How Do People Use And Misuse Prescription Stimulants

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Most prescription stimulants come in tablet, capsule, or liquid form, which a person takes by mouth. Misuse of a prescription stimulant means:

  • taking medicine in a way or dose other than prescribed
  • taking someone else’s medicine
  • taking medicine only for the effect it causesto get high

When misusing a prescription stimulant, people can swallow the medicine in its normal form. Alternatively, they can crush tablets or open the capsules, dissolve the powder in water, and inject the liquid into a vein. Some can also snort or smoke the powder.

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Are Drugs That Increase Heart Rate Dangerous

In younger patients without any medical issues like heart disease or high blood pressure, mild elevations in heart rate related to medications would not likely cause any problems,says Jeffrey Landsman, MD, a primary care provider at Mercy Personal Physicians in Lutherville, Maryland.

In older patients or patients with significant underlying conditions, a rapid heartbeat may be a concern, Dr. Landsman adds.

Some symptoms of a dangerously high heart rate include:

  • Fainting
  • Chest pressure, tightness or pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue

In extreme cases, a dangerously high heart rate can lead to unconsciousness or cardiac arrest.

Heart rates that are too high may decrease your hearts ability to effectively deliver blood and oxygen to the body, says Aaron Emmel, Pharm.D., founder ofPharmacy Tech Scholar. They can also cause an irregular heart rhythm, which is a medical emergency. Shortness of breath, lightheadedness, palpitations, chest pain, or fainting would all be serious signs that warrant medical attention.

Opiates And Your Heart

Opiates stress the body. They put individuals at greater risk for overdose, accident, and injury. They also increase the likelihood of heart problems. CNN.com shares research that found, People who took opioids were more than twice as likely to have a heart attack than their counterparts who took .1

These were individuals taking the drug as prescribed and for underlying medical concerns. When you use opiates incorrectly or take them recreationally, you put your heart at further risk. Injecting crushed or dissolved pills damages vital tissues. Street drugs may contain contaminates that cause even more harm to your heart and blood vessels.

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Health Effects Of Stimulants

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Stimulants are a class of drugs that stimulate the bodys central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. They increase the levels of catecholaminesa family of brain chemicals that includes dopamine. These chemicals are used in the brain processes to signal reward and motivation. By increasing catecholamine levels, stimulants can temporarily increase a persons energy level and alertness. Stimulants may also cause other changes in the body. The effects vary according to the specific drug, the amount of the drug, and how the drug is taken. For instance, stimulants that are snorted or injected have more immediate effects than drugs that are swallowed.

Stimulants include the caffeine found in coffee, medications such as methylphenidate , and abused drugs, such as methamphetamine and cocaine. Stimulants can have useful propertiesunder the right circumstances. For example, doctors use some stimulants to treat disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder . However, when abused, stimulants can pose serious health risks to your brain and your body. Read on to find out the effects of the following stimulants:

  • Cocaine
  • Prescription stimulants, such as amphetamines and methylphenidate
  • Methamphetamine
  • Nicotine
  • Prescription stimulants can reduce ADHD symptoms and increase focus and attention in people who have ADHD.
  • No medical uses.

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