What Mental Health Disorders Are Related To Heart Disease
Mood Disorders: People living with mood disorders, such as major depression or bipolar disorder, find that their mood affects both psychological and mental well-being nearly every day for most of the day.
Anxiety Disorders: People respond to certain objects or situations with fear, dread, or terror. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorders, and phobias.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder : People can experience PTSD after undergoing a traumatic life experience, such as war, natural disaster, or any other serious incident.
Chronic Stress: People are in a state of uncomfortable emotional stressaccompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changesthat is constant and persists over an extended period of time.
*There may be other behavioral health disorders, such as substance use disorders, that are connected to heart disease.
Heart Disease High Blood Pressure And Menopause
While you may have had normal blood pressure most of your life, your chances of developing high blood pressure increase considerably after menopause.
Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but for women symptoms can become more evident after the onset of menopause.
Rates Of High Blood Pressure Control Vary By Sex And Race
Uncontrolled high blood pressure is common; however, certain groups of people are more likely to have control over their high blood pressure than others.
- A greater percent of men have high blood pressure than women .3
- High blood pressure is more common in non-Hispanic black adults than in non-Hispanic white adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
- Among those recommended to take blood pressure medication, blood pressure control is higher among non-Hispanic white adults than in non-Hispanic black adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
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Is It Salt Or Sodium
- Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt.1
- Ninety percent of the sodium we consume is in the form of salt.1
- The words salt and sodium are not exactly the same, yet these words are often used interchangeably. For example, the Nutrition Facts Panel on foods in the grocery store uses sodium, while the front of the package may say no salt added or unsalted.5
Rates Of High Blood Pressure Vary By Geography
High blood pressure is more common in some areas of the United States than in others. Below is a map showing the self-reported rate of hypertension by state in 2011 . However, this map likely underreports the true effect of hypertension in each state, because about 1 in 5 adults with high blood pressure is unaware of it and would not report having it.5
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High Blood Pressure In Pregnancy
If you have high blood pressure during pregnancy, your blood pressure will be monitored during pregnancy, labour and after the birth. If its very high you may need to stay in hospital until it improves.;
The most commonly used drug for high blood pressure in pregnancy is labetalol. If you cant take labetalol, methyldopa and nifedipine are possible alternatives. These are not licensed for use in pregnancy, but they can be offered along with advice about the risks and the reasons for using it.;
If you are on blood pressure medication before becoming pregnant, you might need to change to a different type as some types are not safe to use in pregnancy. You should speak to your doctor to discuss the best way to manage your blood pressure during pregnancy.;;
Reducing Sodium And Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Burden
- Lowering high blood pressure reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke.13 Adults with elevated and high blood pressure especially benefit from lowering their blood pressure.6
- If manufacturers gradually reduced the amount of sodium in processed and prepared foods, public consumption of sodium could be reduced to safer levels with little or no change in behavior on the part of the individual consumer.14
- Sodium intake from processed and restaurant foods contributes to high rates of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. Because nearly 500,000 deaths each year are related to high blood pressure, reducing sodium intake could prevent thousands of deaths annually.15
- Reducing average population sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day may save $18 billion in health care dollars and reduce cases of high blood pressure by 11 million annually.16
- Sodium reduction continues to be an effective and safe strategy to lower blood pressure.3,11,17,18
- Lowering blood pressure reduces and prevents heart attacks and stroke.19
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Emerging Issues In Heart Disease And Stroke
No national system exists to collect data on how often cardiovascular events occur or recur, or how often they result in disability and death. Similarly, there is inadequate tracking of quality indicators across the continuum of care, from risk factor prevention through treatment of acute events to posthospitalization and rehabilitation. New measures and tools are needed to monitor improvement in cardiovascular health and cardiovascular care over the next decade.
Other emerging issues in cardiovascular health include:
- Defining and measuring overall cardiovascular health
- Assessing and communicating lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease
- Addressing depression as a risk factor for and associated condition of heart disease and stroke
- Examining cognitive impairment due to cardiovascular disease
- Dealing with substantial gaps in the cardiovascular surveillance system
Pregnancy Can Elevate The Risk Of Hbp In Women
Some women who have never had high blood pressure develop it while they are pregnant.
Preeclampsia is usually characterized by the onset of high blood pressure that is lasting and can lead to various complications.
Learn how it affects 1 in 25 pregnancies in the U.S and what you can do.
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The Benefits Of Using Proven Strategies
Many effective strategies to manage high blood pressure are a good value in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year gained.* For example:
- Team-based care to improve blood pressure control has a median cost of $9,716 to $13,992 per QALY gained.3
- The use of community health workers, especially as part of a team, has a median estimated cost of $17,670 per QALY gained.5
- When used with other approaches, self-measured blood pressure monitoring has a median cost of $2,800 to $10,800 per QALY gained.6
Medication For High Blood Pressure
This guide can only give general information. You should always get individual advice about your own health and any treatment you may need from a medical professional such as a GP or pharmacist.Tailoring your treatment
The medication you take will be tailored to your individual needs. The medication recommended for you at first will depend on your age and ethnicity.
You might take one type of medication or a combination of two; or more types. This is because the drugs work in different ways, and rather than take more of one type, it can be more effective to take two or more different types. You may need to try different combinations to find out which works best for you. If you need to take four or more different types of medication to control your blood pressure, you should be referred to see a specialist.How long will I be on medication?
The aim of the medication is to keep your blood pressure low and stable over many years. This helps to keep your blood vessels healthy and reduce the risk of a stroke. Some people may be advised to continue taking medication for high blood pressure for the rest of their lives. Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or stroke nurse to find out more about what is causing your blood pressure and the best treatment options for you.
Making changes to your lifestyle such as stopping smoking or losing weight can help to lower blood pressure. With support from your doctor or pharmacist, some people may eventually be able to reduce or stop the medication.;;
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What Is High Blood Pressure
Your heart pumps blood all around your body. Blood pressure is a measure of how strongly the blood presses against the walls ofyourarteries. If this pressure is too high it puts a strain on your arteries and your heart. If its not controlled it can increase your risk of having a stroke or heart attack.
A diagnosis of high blood pressure means that your blood pressure stays high over a long period. The medical term for this is hypertension.
Your blood pressure can go up and down over the course of a day, such as during exercise or sleep. These short-term changes are not likely to cause stroke. But when your blood pressure stays high over a long period of time, this leads to damage to the blood vessels and can eventually cause a stroke.;
High blood pressure is a common problem. There are 9.5 million people with a diagnosis in the UK. And for every 10 people diagnosed with high blood pressure, another seven dont know they have it. That is more than 5.5 million people living with untreated high blood pressure in England alone. It usually has no symptoms so having it measured is the only way to tell if your blood pressure is high.;
Estimated Hypertension Prevalence Treatment And Control Among Us Adults
Clinicians diagnose patients as having hypertension and make treatment decisions by comparing patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings to certain thresholds.
The hypertension thresholds that clinicians use for diagnosis and patients treatment plans may differ from clinician to clinician:
- Some health care professionals diagnose patients with hypertension if their blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher. This limit is based on guidelines and recommendations released in 2003 and 2014.2,3
- Other health care professionals diagnose patients with hypertension if their blood pressure is consistently 130/80 mm Hg or higher. This limit is based on the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Associations hypertension clinical practice guidelineexternal icon that was released in 2017.4
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Facts About Sodium Consumption And Sodium In Our Food Supply
- The 20152020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium each day as part of a healthy eating pattern.6
- About 90% of Americans 2 years old or older consume too much sodium.7
- The average daily sodium intake for Americans 2 years old or older is more than 3,400 mg.8
- Americans are consuming substantially more sodium than in the 1970s. Since 2010, some manufacturers have reduced sodium in some foods, and the amount of sodium consumed has decreased slightly in some groups of people.7,9
- About 70% of sodium consumed is from processed and restaurant foods. Only a small portion of sodium or salt is used in cooking or added at the table.10
- Because sodium is already in processed and restaurant foods when they are purchased, reducing personal sodium intake can be hard, even for motivated people.11
- Sodium content can vary across the same types of foods by brand. For example, a slice of frozen cheese pizza can have between 370 mg and 730 mg of sodium; a cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant can have between 710 mg and 1,690 mg.12
- Sodium information currently is not always readily available for restaurant or prepared foods and can be hard for the consumer to estimate.
How Is Hypertensive Heart Disease Diagnosed
Your doctor will look for certain signs of hypertensive heart disease, including:
- High blood pressure
- Fluid in the lungs or lower extremities
- Unusual heart sounds
Your doctor may perform tests to determine if you have hypertensive heart disease, including an electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, cardiac stress test, chest X-ray, and coronary angiogram.
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High Blood Pressure And Women
A;common misconception is that high blood pressure rarely affects women. However, nearly half of all adults with high blood pressure are women. In fact, women that are just 20 pounds or more overweight, have a family history of HBP or have reached menopause are known to increase a womans risk.
While high blood pressure isn’t directly related to gender, throughout a womans life, health issues like pregnancy, pregnancy prevention and menopause can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure.
Women represent almost 52% of deaths from high blood pressure.
Testing And Diagnosis: When To See The Doctor
Your doctor will review your medical history, conduct a physical exam, and run lab tests to check your kidneys, sodium, potassium, and blood count.
One or more of the following tests may be used to help determine the cause of your symptoms:
- Electrocardiogram monitors and records your hearts electrical activity. Your doctor will attach patches to your chest, legs, and arms. The results will be visible on a screen, and your doctor will interpret them.
- Echocardiogram takes a detailed picture of your heart using ultrasound.
- Coronary angiography examines the flow of blood through your coronary arteries. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted through your groin or an artery in your arm and up into the heart.
- Exercise stress test looks at how exercise affects your heart. You may be asked to pedal an exercise bike or walk on a treadmill.
- Nuclear stress test examines the flow of blood into the heart. The test is usually conducted while youre resting and exercising.
Treatment for hypertensive heart disease depends on the seriousness of your illness, your age, and your medical history.
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What Is Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is worlds number one killer, causing 18.6 million deaths every year.
Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels . It can be caused by a combination of socio-economic, behavioural, and environmental risk factors, including high blood pressure, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, diabetes, air pollution, obesity, tobacco use, kidney disease, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and stress. Family history, ethnic background, sex, and age can also affect a persons risk of cardiovascular disease.
Simple Steps To Lower Your Blood Pressure And Reduce Your Stroke Risk
There are a number of factors you can control to help reduce your blood pressure and chances of having a stroke.
- Have your blood pressure checked by a doctor or pharmacist. The lower your blood pressure the lower your risk of stroke.
- Maintain a healthy weight and eat well
- Be active on most days of the week.
- Lower your salt intake. Limit alcohol intake.
- Be smoke-free, quit smoking. Call Quitline on 13 78 48.
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Narrowing Of The Arteries
Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. When high blood pressure causes the blood vessels to become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow or stop. This condition is known as coronary heart disease , also called coronary artery disease.
CHD makes it difficult for your heart to function and supply the rest of your organs with blood. It can put you at risk for heart attack from a blood clot that gets stuck in one of the narrowed arteries and cuts off blood flow to your heart.
How Is Blood Pressure Measured
Measuring your blood pressure is quick, simple and painless, and can be carried out at your doctors surgery or at some pharmacies. A stethoscope, arm cuff, pump and dial was used until recently to measure blood pressure, but automatic devices with sensors and digital displays are now in common use.Understanding your blood pressure reading
Your blood pressure reading is recorded as two numbers. The first number is the greatest pressure your arteries experience when your heart beats . The second number is the lower pressure when your heart relaxes between beats . Both pressures are measured in millimetres of mercury, written as mmHg. The ideal blood pressure is between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg.;
Both numbers are equally important, and blood pressure is counted as being high if either number is high.How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
You are usually diagnosed with high blood pressure if it’s consistently higher than 140/90mmHg.;
If you have diabetes, you may be treated with medication if your blood pressure is consistently above 130/80 mmHg and you have any complications of diabetes such as eye or kidney problems.;
A blood pressure reading between 120/80 mmHg and 140/90 mmHg could mean you’re at risk of developing high blood pressure if you don’t take steps to keep your blood pressure under control.
Women taking the contraceptive pill, who are pregnant or taking hormone replacement therapy , also need to have their blood pressure checked more often.
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How Is High Blood Pressure Treated
Many people can lower their blood pressure by making changes to their lifestyle. If you are overweight, losing some weight can make a big difference. Doing some more exercise, eating healthier food, and reducing alcohol can also cause a big improvement in blood pressure levels.;
You may be advised to take medication, especially if you have some additional risk factors.
To help you make a decision about medication, your doctor will assess your personal risk of developing stroke or heart disease in future. They look at whether your high blood pressure has caused problems in the body already. You may have a blood test, a urine test, and an electrocardiogram to check for heart problems.
If your blood pressure is consistently above 140/90 mmHg and your risk of stroke is high, you’ll be offered medication to lower your blood pressure and advice about making lifestyle changes.;
If your blood pressure is consistently above 160/100mmHg, you’ll be offered medication to lower your blood pressure, even if your risk of a stroke is low, as well as advice on making lifestyle changes.
If you’ve had a stroke or heart attack, the aim will often be to reduce your blood pressure to below 130/80mmHg.;;