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Explain How Hypertension, Heart Disease, And Stroke Are Related.

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Treatment Of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

What is Hypertension?

Diuretics are used in the treatment of LV systolic dysfunction. Low-dose spironolactone has been shown to decrease the rates of morbidity and mortality in patients in NYHA class III or IV heart failure who are already taking ACE inhibitors. This agent is also recommended for use in post-myocardial infarction patients with diabetes mellitus or who have an LV ejection fraction of less than 40%.

ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers are used for preload and afterload reduction and the prevention of pulmonary or systemic congestion. These drugs have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality rates in patients with heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. The aim should be to use the target dose or the maximum tolerable doses. ACE inhibitors are also indicated in patients with asymptomatic LV dilatation and dysfunction.

The angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan has been shown to be superior to ACE inhibitor alone in reducing the risk of death and hospitalization in patients with heart failure due to systolic dysfunction and is now preferred over ACE Inhibitots and ARBs.

What Are The Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease

The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. The effects of behavioural risk factors may show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity. These intermediate risks factors can be measured in primary care facilities and indicate an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

Cessation of tobacco use, reduction of salt in the diet, eating more fruit and vegetables, regular physical activity and avoiding harmful use of alcohol have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Health policies that create conducive environments for making healthy choices affordable and available are essential for motivating people to adopt and sustain healthy behaviours.

There are also a number of underlying determinants of CVDs. These are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change globalization, urbanization and population ageing. Other determinants of CVDs include poverty, stress and hereditary factors.

In addition, drug treatment of hypertension, diabetes and high blood lipids are necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent heart attacks and strokes among people with these conditions.

Medication For High Blood Pressure

This guide can only give general information. You should always get individual advice about your own health and any treatment you may need from a medical professional such as a GP or pharmacist.Tailoring your treatment

The medication you take will be tailored to your individual needs. The medication recommended for you at first will depend on your age and ethnicity.

You might take one type of medication or a combination of two or more types. This is because the drugs work in different ways, and rather than take more of one type, it can be more effective to take two or more different types. You may need to try different combinations to find out which works best for you. If you need to take four or more different types of medication to control your blood pressure, you should be referred to see a specialist.How long will I be on medication?

The aim of the medication is to keep your blood pressure low and stable over many years. This helps to keep your blood vessels healthy and reduce the risk of a stroke. Some people may be advised to continue taking medication for high blood pressure for the rest of their lives. Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or stroke nurse to find out more about what is causing your blood pressure and the best treatment options for you.

Making changes to your lifestyle such as stopping smoking or losing weight can help to lower blood pressure. With support from your doctor or pharmacist, some people may eventually be able to reduce or stop the medication.

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How Do I Know If I Have High Blood Pressure

Theres only one way to know if you have high blood pressure: Have a doctor or other health professional measure it. Measuring your blood pressure is quick and painless.

Talk with your health care team about regularly measuring your blood pressure at home, also called self-measured blood pressure monitoring.

High blood pressure is called the silent killer because it usually has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not know they have it.

Symptoms Of Heart Attacks And Strokes

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Often, there are no symptoms of the underlying disease of the blood vessels. A heart attack or stroke may be the first sign of underlying disease. Symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • pain or discomfort in the centre of the chest and/or
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.

In addition the person may experience difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath nausea or vomiting light-headedness or faintness a cold sweat and turning pale. Women are more likely than men to have shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and back or jaw pain.

The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness of the face, arm, or leg, most often on one side of the body. Other symptoms include sudden onset of:

  • numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body
  • confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • difficulty seeing with one or both eyes
  • difficulty walking, dizziness and/or loss of balance or coordination
  • severe headache with no known cause and/or
  • fainting or unconsciousness.

People experiencing these symptoms should seek medical care immediately.

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High Blood Pressure And Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of risk factors, including high blood pressure, that raises the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke and other health problems. It is diagnosed when any three of these risk factors are present:

  • High blood glucose
  • Low levels of HDL cholesterol in the blood
  • High levels of triglycerides in the blood
  • Large waist circumference or apple-shaped body
  • High blood pressure

Managing High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

As part of your regular prenatal care, your doctor will measure your blood pressure at each visit. Learn more about how to prepare for a blood pressure test.

If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will closely monitor you and your baby and provide special care to lower the chance of complications. You may need to:

  • Check your blood pressure at home. Visit Measure Your Blood Pressure for more information.
  • Keep track of how many times you feel the baby kicking each day.
  • Limit your physical activity. Talk to your doctor about what level of physical activity is right for you.
  • Take medicine to control your blood pressure. If you do, talk to your doctor about which medicines are safe for your baby. These medicines may include calcium-channel blockers , taken by mouth, or beta blockers or vasodilators , given through an IV.
  • Take aspirin in the second trimester, if you are at risk of preeclampsia and your doctor recommends aspirin.
  • Visit your doctor more often to monitor your condition and your babys growth rate and heart rate. He or she may order blood and urine tests to check how well your organs are working, which can help detect preeclampsia.

If your doctor is concerned about you or your babys health, they may recommend that you deliver your baby before 39 weeks. You may need to stay in the hospital to get medicine that will help your babys lungs develop faster and to be monitored before and after you deliver your baby.

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Healthy Eating And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Eating a variety of foods is good for our health and can help reduce the risk of disease, including heart disease. This helps maintain a healthy and interesting diet and provides a range of different nutrients to the body.

To reduce your heart disease risk, follow these heart healthy eating patterns recommended by the Heart Foundation:

  • Make your bones and muscles stronger.
  • Make you feel more confident, happy and relaxed.
  • Help you to sleep better.

If you have had a heart attack, regular physical activity will help you to recover more quickly. If you have diabetes, it will also help you to manage your blood-glucose levels.

Physical activity doesnât have to be strenuous. Moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, is great for your health. It is recommended that you do 30â45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. You can do this in smaller bouts, such as three 10-minute walks, if it is easier.

Explain How Hypertension Heart Rate Stroke Are Related

108 What Is Hypertension?

High blood pressure also leads to thickening of the blood vessel walls. When combined with cholesterol deposits in the blood vessels, the risk of heart attack and stroke increases.


hypertension can cause a stroke and many strokes causes heart disease therefore there all related because high blood pressure causes both strokes and heart disease


Hypertension, heart disease, and stoke are related because they all have to do with the heart. Hypertension is when you have high blood levels, heart disease is when your heart doesn’t work properly, and stoke is when the heart beats hyperactively or the opposite.

what the other guy said


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  • There is no single thing that causes heart disease and stroke, but there are several risk factors that contribute to it.
  • You can reduce your risk of developing cardiovascular disease by choosing healthy foods, quitting smoking, being physically active, managing conditions managing your weight and avoiding social isolation.
  • Medicines are often used to help prevent cardiovascular disease , depending on your level of risk and other health conditions.

Data Synthesis And Analysis

We used the STATA version 15.0 software package to conduct random effects meta-analysis by using the inverse variance method for pooling log relative risks. Random effects was used because the studies were conducted over a wide range of settings in different populations. This approach required that heterogeneity be considered when making the pooled effect estimate. If possible, we chose to pool the risk estimates from primary studies, and when these data were not available, raw data were used to calculate unadjusted risk estimates. Pooled relative risks were expressed with 95% confidence intervals. The absolute risk difference was calculated by using the formula , where RR indicates pooled relative risks and I0 is the incidence of cardiovascular events per 1000 person years among young adults with optimal blood pressure.31

In the dose-response analysis, we used restricted cubic splines to assess the pooled dose-response relation between blood pressure and individual outcomes. Nonlinear models were fitted and the results presented with 95% confidence intervals.34 We used mean values of the systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure reported by the original studies, or calculated the average level by estimating the midpoint in each category. To enable the total person years of observation to be calculated, we included data from reports that specified total person time of follow-up, or sample size and median follow-up per person.

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Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

The mortality rate from heart failure due to systolic LV dysfunction is high and depends on the symptoms and New York Heart Association heart failure classification. The 5-year mortality rate for patients with heart failure due to systolic dysfunction approaches 20%, whereas the 2-year mortality rate in patients with NYHA class IV classification is as high as 50%. Mortality rates have decreased with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, which improve LV function.

Improving Health With Current Research


Learn about the following ways in which we continue to translate current research and science into improved health for people who have high blood pressure. Research on this topic is part of our broader commitment to advancing scientific discovery in heart and vascular disease and health disparities and inequities research.

Learn about some of the pioneering research contributions we have made over the years that have improved clinical care.

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Learn To Manage Stress

Managing diabetes is not always easy. Feeling stressed, sad, lonely, or angry is common when you are living with diabetes. You may know what to do to stay healthy but may have trouble sticking with your plan over time. Long-term stress can raise your blood glucose and blood pressure, but you can learn ways to lower your stress. Try deep breathing, gardening, taking a walk, doing yoga, talking with a loved one, working on a hobby, or listening to your favorite music. Learn more about healthy ways to cope with stress.

Blood Pressure And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in your arteries as it is pumped around your body by your heart. Blood pressure depends on two main things: the amount of blood pumped by your heart and how easily the blood can flow through your arteries.

Your blood pressure will go up and down throughout the day, depending on the time of day and what you are doing. However, high blood pressure is a condition where your blood pressure is consistently high.

Your family history, eating patterns, alcohol intake, weight and level of physical activity have a strong influence on blood pressure. In some people, medicines, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive âdepotâ injections, steroids and arthritis medicines, can also raise blood pressure.

High blood pressure can overload your heart and arteries and speed up the artery-clogging process. This can lead to problems such as heart attack and stroke.

High blood pressure can also affect arteries to other parts of your body, such as the eyes, kidneys and legs.

If high blood pressure is not treated, your heart may weaken because of the constant extra demand. This may cause âheart failureâ, a serious condition with symptoms such as tiredness, shortness of breath and swelling of the feet and ankles.

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Walking For Heart Health

Try walking to stay active. The Heart Foundation has community walking groups all over Australia you can join. Walking for an average of 30 minutes or more a day can:

  • Lower our risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes .
  • Manage weight, blood pressure and cholesterol.
  • Reduce our risk of some cancers.
  • Maintain bone density â reducing risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
  • Improve balance and coordination â reducing your risk of falls and other injuries.

Testing And Diagnosis: When To See The Doctor

Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Blood Pressure

Your doctor will review your medical history, conduct a physical exam, and run lab tests to check your kidneys, sodium, potassium, and blood count.

One or more of the following tests may be used to help determine the cause of your symptoms:

  • Electrocardiogram monitors and records your hearts electrical activity. Your doctor will attach patches to your chest, legs, and arms. The results will be visible on a screen, and your doctor will interpret them.
  • Echocardiogram takes a detailed picture of your heart using ultrasound.
  • Coronary angiography examines the flow of blood through your coronary arteries. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted through your groin or an artery in your arm and up into the heart.
  • Exercise stress test looks at how exercise affects your heart. You may be asked to pedal an exercise bike or walk on a treadmill.
  • Nuclear stress test examines the flow of blood into the heart. The test is usually conducted while youre resting and exercising.

Treatment for hypertensive heart disease depends on the seriousness of your illness, your age, and your medical history.

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Family History And Genetics

High blood pressure often runs in families. Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from genetic studies. Many different genes are linked to a small increase in the risk of developing high blood pressure. Research suggests that certain DNA changes as an unborn baby grows in the womb may also lead to high blood pressure later in life.

Some people have a high sensitivity to salt in their diet. This can also run in families.

Causes Of Coronary Heart Disease And Stroke

Healthy blood vessels are flexible, but with age and unhealthy lifestyle choices, they can become thickened and stiff, and this can restrict blood flow around the body. This process is known as arteriosclerosis and is commonly called hardening of the arteries.Atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis that involves a build-up of fatty substances and cellular waste . These can either partially or totally block blood vessels, or the plaque can break open and trigger a blood clot that also blocks blood flow. Atherosclerosis can occur anywhere in the body. For example, when it occurs in the vessels leading to your arms and legs, it can cause peripheral vascular disease .When the process of atherosclerosis occurs in the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle , it can trigger angina or a heart attack.When this process occurs in arteries supplying blood to the brain, the arteries become narrow with plaques, and a blood clot can form and block the blood supply to the brain . In other cases, a blood clot may travel from elsewhere in the body and lodge in the narrowed arteries .Thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke are both causes of the most common type of stroke, ischaemic stroke. Haemorrhagic stroke, which is less common, occurs when a blood vessel in the brain breaks and bleeds.Although blocked blood vessels can cause both coronary heart disease and some types of stroke, stroke is not the same as heart disease.

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