Wednesday, June 19, 2024

Prognosis Of Congestive Heart Failure

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What Happens If You Have Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure Diagnosis and Treatment

People with heart failure have weak hearts that dont work as well as they should. Over time, the illness causes significant damage to the body.

In the first stages, the heart is less effective. It stretches, grows bigger, and pumps faster to compensate for the lack of strength. The body also changes, with arteries getting smaller and blood being directed away from certain body parts. Many people with heart failure dont know they have a problem in these early stages.

Towards the end stages of CHF, symptoms will worsen even if lifestyle changes are made, and the body will be unable to compensate for the loss of blood flow. As soon as that happens, the person may start to feel tired, have trouble breathing, and have other problems.

People can get help managing their end stages congestive heart failure symptoms and slowing down the progress of their condition with a variety of treatments. Its a long-term condition that cant be cured, as well as heart failure. People will eventually reach the end stages of heart failure.

Even when the person is lying down, they feel a shortness of breath. Their symptoms can change rapidly over a short period of time.

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Congestive heart failure has four main stages. There are various complications that are seen during congestive heart failure are fatigue, irregular heartbeat, pulmonary hypertension, malnutrition, and kidney and liver damage. If the person is showing such symptoms then it may be a suspected heart failure.

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Bloating in your stomach may cause a loss of appetite or nausea. Dizziness, fatigue, and weakness. Less blood to your major organs and muscles makes you feel tired and weak. Less blood to the.

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Aetiology Of Heart Failure

Because heart failure can be viewed as the chronic stage of any disease leading to cardiac functional impairment, assigning a specific cause to heart failure in an individual is challenging. Multiple causes often co-exist and most comorbid conditions do not occur independently of heart failure, but share a set of risk factors, have a role in syndrome pathogenesis or function as a perpetuating factor. The majority of patients with heart failure exhibit multi-morbidity and the number of patients with three or more chronic comorbidities increased from 68% in 2002 to 87% in 2014. Comorbidity is associated with increased severity of heart failure symptoms and corresponds to a poor quality of life and a worse prognosis.,

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About Congestive Heart Failure

Heart failure, sometimes called congestive cardiac failure , is a condition in which the heart muscle is weakened and cant pump as well as it usually does. The main pumping chambers of the heart can change size and thickness, and either cant contract or cant relax as well as they should. This triggers fluid retention, particularly in the lungs, legs and abdomen.

The major causes of heart failure include coronary heart disease and heart attack, high blood pressure, damage to the heart muscle , heart valve problems and abnormal heart rhythms. Of these, coronary heart disease and heart attack are the most common causes.

The major factors that contribute to coronary heart disease include:

  • reduced emotional and social wellbeing
  • physical inactivity.

Heart failure is more common in elderly people. The survival rate for people with this disorder depends on the severity of their condition.

Most common treatments for heart failure are medications and self-managed lifestyle changes. Some less-common treatments may require insertion of implantable cardiac devices or valve replacement.

Life Expectancy An Individual Matter

12 Signs of Congestive Heart Failure People Often Miss

“The exact reasons for this incongruity are unknown but they may reflect hope or may result from inadequate communication between clinicians and their patients about prognosis,” write the researchers. “Because differences in expectations about prognosis could affect decision making regarding advanced therapies and end-of-life planning, further research into both the extent and the underlying causes of these differences is warranted.”

In an editorial that accompanies the study, Clyde W. Yancy, MD, of Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, writes that predicting life expectancy in people with heart failure is not an exact science and many questions remain about clinical prediction models.

Therefore, until these issues are fully addressed, people should embrace an individualized decision-making process regarding end-of-life care guided by physician input.

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Mortality Differences Over Time

The prognosis for chronic HF has improved, when compared with very early studies such as the Framingham Heart and Offspring Studies , where 1-year survival was 60.5% and 5-year survival was 31.5%.25 However, more recently, there has been no change or very modest improvements in survival.8 A large Scottish cohort study found an increased median survival time from 1.3 years to 2.3 years between 1986 and 200215 and similarly a more recent Canadian cohort study found a minimal change in 1-year survival between 1997 and 2007, from 64.3% to 66.2% in acute HF and from 82.3% to 83.8% in chronic HF.26

The lack of improvement in survival time is disappointing given the number of evidence-based treatment options that have been in use over the past 20 years.18â20 In part this may be explained by the fact no treatment has been shown to improve survival in HFpEF or HFmrEF.3 Analysis of prescribing patterns does however suggest there is suboptimal use of proven treatments for patients with HFrEF,15 highlighting an important area of focus for GPs. Patients with HF also frequently have several comorbidities, which will impact on their prognosis, as seen by the range of mortality causes. A holistic approach to care is needed in these patients that goes beyond a simple algorithm-based HF treatment strategy.

How Palliative And Hospice Care Can Help With End

Both palliative and hospice care focus on the whole person, including their physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs. The main difference is that palliative care can be given at any time during a serious illness, and hospice care is given near the end of life typically when a persons prognosis is six months or less.

Palliative and hospice care can also provide help with making difficult treatment decisions, such as whether to be resuscitated if the persons heart stops, or whether to have a tube placed in their throat to help them breathe.

Similarly, people with end-stage heart failure may need to decide when to disable certain medical devices implanted in their body:

  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator . Patients can have the shock function turned off, or not replace the battery when the current one runs out. Electrical shocks from ICDs can cause unnecessary distress for patients and loved ones at the end of life.
  • Left ventricular assist device . Typically, the patient decides when this heart pump will be shut off before it is implanted. The decision can be discussed again as the end of life nears.

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Lifestyle And Home Remedies

Making lifestyle changes can often help relieve signs and symptoms of heart failure and prevent the disease from worsening. These changes may be among the most important and beneficial you can make. Lifestyle changes your doctor may recommend include:

  • Stop smoking. Smoking damages your blood vessels, raises blood pressure, reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood and makes your heart beat faster.

If you smoke, ask your doctor to recommend a program to help you quit. You cant be considered for a heart transplant if you continue to smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke, too.

  • Discuss weight monitoring with your doctor. Discuss with your doctor how often you should weigh yourself. Ask your doctor how much weight gain you should notify him or her about. Weight gain may mean that youre retaining fluids and need a change in your treatment plan.
  • Check your legs, ankles and feet for swelling daily. Check for any changes in swelling in your legs, ankles or feet daily. Check with your doctor if the swelling worsens.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Aim to eat a diet that includes fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and lean proteins.
  • Restrict salt in your diet. Too much sodium contributes to water retention, which makes your heart work harder and causes shortness of breath and swollen legs, ankles and feet.

If you have severe heart failure, your doctor may also suggest you limit the amount of fluids you drink.

When To Seek Hospice Care

Early Stages of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Even physicians have difficulty determining life expectancy for people with end-stage heart-failure. The condition can be unpredictable, and symptoms can change. However, certain signs can indicate that hospice care would be beneficial, including:

  • frequent chest pain
  • significant fatigue or shortness of breath
  • substantial decline in ability to do daily activities, such as self-care
  • The patient has already received the best possible treatment, which are no longer working well, and the patient is not a candidate for other interventions.
  • The patient has received the best possible treatment and has decided to decline further specialized interventions.

People can be reluctant to start hospice, as they may worry it means theyre giving up or that it will hasten death. But such concerns are unfounded. In fact, patients and families often wish they had started hospice sooner, because it makes such a positive difference in their lives. And research shows that early admission to hospice results in greater satisfaction with care among patients and family caregivers.

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Prognosis Of Heart Failure

Prognosis has improved significantly since clinical trials came out 30âyears ago showing for the first time that the grim outcome of heart failure patients can be considerably altered. There is no doubt however that prognosis remains poor and quality of life remains severely reduced. In age- and risk factor-adjusted models, incident heart failure conferred a fivefold increased risk of death. However, to translate the natural history of heart failure as an individual disease into the prognosis of the diseased individual is difficult, and physicians are understandably reluctant to communicate explicit quantitative information on prognosis to their patients. Many prognostic markers of death and hospitalization have been identified, but the clinical value of prognostic models is limited and individual risk stratification remains challenging.

How To Live Longer With Heart Failure

Everything you need to know about the various stages of heart failure to live longer with the condition.

A congestive heart failure diagnosis doesnt mean your heart has stopped working, it means that your heart is unable to pump enough blood throughout your body.

Heart failure is a scary term, says , a cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. The condition can worsen if the proper steps arent taken to slow or halt the problem, but it does not mean your life is over.

Congestive heart failure, more simply known as heart failure, occurs when there’s a reduction in blood flow throughout the body because blood flow from the heart slows down. That means blood returning to the heart through the veins backs up, causing congestion in the body’s tissues. That congestion may cause swelling in the ankles, legs, or stomach, as well as fluid in the lungs that causes trouble breathing.

Life expectancy with congestive heart failure varies depending on the severity of the condition, genetics, age, and other factors. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , around one-half of all people diagnosed with congestive heart failure will survive beyond five years. Only around 10 percent of people diagnosed with the condition survive at least 10 years, according to a study published in August 2013 in the journal Circulation Research.

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Congestive Heart Failure Drugs

There are several medications that can be used to treat CHF, including ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and more.

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors open up narrowed blood vessels to improve blood flow. Vasodilators are another option if you cant tolerate ACE inhibitors.

You may be prescribed one of the following:

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ACE inhibitors shouldnt be taken with the following medications without consulting a doctor, because they may cause an adverse reaction:

  • Potassium-sparing diuretics and potassium supplements. These diuretics can cause potassium buildup in the blood, which may lead to abnormal heart rhythms. Examples include: riamterene , eplerenone , and spironolactone .
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs .NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen, can cause sodium and water retention. This may reduce the ACE inhibitors effect on your blood pressure.


This may be achieved with:


Your doctor may recommend:

How The Normal Heart Works

Congestive Heart Failure: The Medical Definition

The normal healthy heart is a strong, muscular pump a little larger than a fist. It pumps blood continuously through the circulatory system. Watch an animation of blood flow through the heart.

The heart has four chambers, two on the right and two on the left:

  • Two upper chambers called atria
  • Two lower chambers called ventricles

The right atria takes in oxygen-depleted blood from the rest of the body and sends it back out to the lungs through the right ventricle where the blood becomes oxygenated.

Oxygen-rich blood travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then on to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body.

The heart pumps blood to the lungs and to all the bodys tissues by a sequence of highly organized contractions of the four chambers. For the heart to function properly, the four chambers must beat in an organized way.

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What You Can Do

Some risk factors of heart failure, like age, cant be modified. Still, people with CHF can take steps to improve the long-term prognosis. The first thing to do is to be familiar with any family history of heart disease. You’ll also want to learn about all the possible symptoms. Don’t ignore any symptom that you think is cause for concern. Tell your healthcare provider about them right away.

Regular exercise, along with managing any other health issues you may have, can also help to keep CHF under control.

How Is Heart Failure Treated

Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and, in part, what caused it. Medications and lifestyle behaviors are part of every treatment plan. Your healthcare provider will talk to you about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment is the same, regardless of gender.

As heart failure gets worse, your heart muscle pumps less blood to your organs, and you move toward the next stage of heart failure. Since you cant move backward through the heart failure stages, the goal of treatment is to keep you from moving forward through the stages or to slow down the progression of your heart failure.

Stage A treatment

The usual treatment plan for people with Stage A heart failure includes:

  • Regular exercise, being active, walking every day.
  • Stopping the use of tobacco products.
  • Treatment for high blood pressure .
  • Treatment for high cholesterol.
  • Not drinking alcohol or using recreational drugs.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker if you have coronary artery disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or other vascular or cardiac conditions.
  • Beta-blocker if you have high blood pressure.

Stage B treatment

The usual treatment plan for people with Stage B heart failure includes:

Stage C treatment

The usual treatment plan for people with Stage C HF-rEF includes:

If the treatment causes your symptoms to get better or stop, you still need to continue treatment to slow the progression to Stage D.

Stage D treatment

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Heart Failure: Prognosis And Life Expectancy

If you have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure, you may have many questions, such as can heart failure be treated, what are the stages of heart failure, and what is the prognosis? The term heart failure can be misleading because when we hear the word failure, we tend to think that something stops working altogether. This isnt the case with heart failure. A diagnosis of heart failure means your heart isnt pumping blood as well as it should be. However, it is a chronic progressive condition that has no cure.

Heart failure is very common, affecting almost 6 million people in the United States. It can occur at any age, even in children, although it tends to affect older people than any other group. There is no cure for heart failure, but treatments can help prolong life and quality of life. Learn more about heart failure survival rates, and what you might do to help improve your odds of living with congestive heart failure.

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