Tuesday, August 2, 2022

Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology

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Diagnosis Of Heart Failure Of Acute Onset

Pathophysiology of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Data from Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, et al: 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC. European Heart Journal 37:2129-2200, 2016. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw128

Surgery And Percutaneous Procedures

Surgery may be appropriate when certain underlying disorders are present. Surgery in patients with advanced HF should be done in a specialized center.

Surgical closure of congenital or acquired intracardiac shunts can be curative.

If HF is primarily due to a valvular disorder Overview of Cardiac Valvular Disorders Any heart valve can become stenotic or insufficient , causing hemodynamic changes long before symptoms. Most often, valvular stenosis or insufficiency… read more , valve repair or replacement should be considered. Patients with primary mitral regurgitation are more likely to benefit than patients with mitral regurgitation secondary to LV dilation, in whom poor myocardial function is likely to continue postoperatively. Surgery is preferably done before myocardial dilation and damage become irreversible. More recently, percutaneous mitral valve repair procedure, in which a clip is applied to approximate the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets, has been shown to reduce death and HF hospitalization in carefully selected patients with symptomatic HF despite optimal medical management and moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation with preserved LV size is a syndrome of ventricular dysfunction. Left ventricular failure causes shortness of breath and fatigue, and right ventricular failure causes peripheral and abdominal fluid… read more ).

What Are The Types Of Heart Failure

Systolic dysfunction happens when the heart muscle doesn’t contract with enough force, so there is less oxygen-rich blood pumped throughout the body.

Diastolic dysfunction happens when the heart contracts normally, but the ventricles donât relax properly or are stiff, and less blood enters the heart during normal filling.

A calculation done during an echocardiogram, called the ejection fraction , is used to measure how well your heart pumps with each beat to help determine if systolic or diastolic dysfunction is present. Your doctor can discuss which condition you have.

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What Is The Outlook For People With Heart Failure

With the right care, heart failure may not stop you from doing the things you enjoy. Your prognosis or outlook for the future will depend on how well your heart muscle is functioning, your symptoms, and how well you respond to and follow your treatment plan.

Everyone with a long-term illness, such as heart failure, should discuss their desires for extended medical care with their doctor and family. An “advance directive” or “living will” is one way to let everyone know your wishes. A living will expresses your desires about the use of medical treatments to prolong your life. This document is prepared while you are fully competent in case you are unable to make these decisions at a later time.

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How Can I Improve My Quality Of Life With Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure vector illustration

There are several things you can do to improve your quality of life if you have heart failure. Among them:

  • Eat a healthy diet. Limit your consumption of sodium to less than 1,500 milligrams each day. Eat foods high in fiber. Limit foods high in trans fat, cholesterol, and sugar. Reduce total daily intake of calories to lose weight if necessary.
  • Exercise regularly. A regular cardiovascular exercise program, prescribed by your doctor, will help improve your strength and make you feel better. It may also decrease heart failure progression.
  • Don’t overdo it. Plan your activities and include rest periods during the day. Certain activities, such as pushing or pulling heavy objects and shoveling may worsen heart failure and its symptoms.
  • Prevent respiratory infections. Ask your doctor about flu and pneumonia vaccines.
  • Take your medications as prescribed. Do not stop taking them without first contacting your doctor.
  • Get emotional or psychological support if needed. Heart failure can be difficult for your whole family. If you have questions, ask your doctor or nurse. If you need emotional support, social workers, psychologists, clergy, and heart failure support groups are a phone call away. Ask your doctor or nurse to point you in the right direction.

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Dyssynchrony And Resynchronization Therapy

Disease prevalence

In a Swedish registry, LBBB and IVCD were found in 25 and 15% of patients with HFrEF, respectively. The presence of both LBBB and IVCD increased the risk of all-cause mortality by 30%. In transcutaneous aortic valve implantation procedure, new-onset LBBB may even increase the risk of mortality by 50%. The pathophysiology paragraph describes the serious consequences of ventricular dyssynchrony. Therefore, ventricular dyssynchrony is an important therapeutic target in patients with HFrEF. It has been estimated that at least 400 patients per million of the population would be eligible for CRT, but in practice, only Germany and Italy at least approach such implantation numbers in Europe.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy

According to current guidelines, good candidates for CRT are those with HFrEF and an abnormal QRS complex . Likewise, because activation sequence in RV pacing mimicks that of LBBB, CRT is indicated for patients who are RV paced for a significant portion and have LVEF < 35% and patients with LVEF < 40% with high-degree AV block who have an indication for ventricular pacing.

Patient selection

Atrial fibrillation patients do not derive the same benefit from CRT, which may be due to several factors such as insufficient amount of biventricular stimulation , fusion or pseudofusion beats without proper biventricular stimulation, and lack of atrial contribution to ventricular filling.

Therapy delivery

Device optimization

Systolic And Diastolic Failure

Systolic and diastolic heart failure each result in a decrease in stroke volume. This leads to activation of peripheral and central baroreflexes and chemoreflexes that are capable of eliciting marked increases in sympathetic nerve traffic.

Although there are commonalities in the neurohormonal responses to decreased stroke volume, the neurohormone-mediated events that follow have been most clearly elucidated for individuals with systolic heart failure. The ensuing elevation in plasma norepinephrine directly correlates with the degree of cardiac dysfunction and has significant prognostic implications. Norepinephrine, while directly toxic to cardiac myocytes, is also responsible for a variety of signal-transduction abnormalities, such as downregulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors, uncoupling of beta2-adrenergic receptors, and increased activity of inhibitory G-protein. Changes in beta1-adrenergic receptors result in overexpression and promote myocardial hypertrophy.

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Treatment Of Congestive Heart Failure:

Treatment of Congestive Cardiac Failure is focused on improving the symptoms and preventing the progression of the disease.

The major and often neglected form of treatment is lifestyle improvement, which includes:

1. Regulation of the salt and fluid intake: As the entire body suffers from congestion due to fluid accumulation and also that sodium leads to increased fluid accumulation in the body tissues, it is often recommended to restrict the sodium and fluid intake during the cardiac failure.

2. Exercise: It is recommended to do any activity which one can sustain for more than just a few minutes while your heart,lungs and muscles work overtime. Such an exercise is known as aerobic exercise.Regular exercise, according to the patient’s tolerance level, appears to provide significant benefits and should be used only when the patient is compensated and stable.

What Are The Symptoms Of Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Pathophysiology, Nursing, Treatment, Symptoms | Heart Failure Part 1

You may not have any symptoms of heart failure, or the symptoms may be mild to severe. Symptoms can be constant or can come and go. The symptoms can include:

  • Congested lungs. Fluid backup in the lungs can cause shortness of breath with exercise or difficulty breathing at rest or when lying flat in bed. Lung congestion can also cause a dry, hacking cough or wheezing.
  • Fluid and water retention. Less blood to your kidneys causes fluid and water retention, resulting in swollen ankles, legs, abdomen , and weight gain. Symptoms may cause an increased need to urinate during the night. Bloating in your stomach may cause a loss of appetite or nausea.
  • Dizziness, fatigue, and weakness. Less blood to your major organs and muscles makes you feel tired and weak. Less blood to the brain can cause dizziness or confusion.
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeats. The heart beats faster to pump enough blood to the body. This can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat.

If you have heart failure, you may have one or all of these symptoms or you may have none of them. They may or may not indicate a weakened heart.

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Types Of Heart Failure

The two types of heart failure include:

  • Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction , previously known as systolic heart failure, develops when the ejection fraction is 40% or less. A 2020 research review stated about 50% of heart failure cases have a reduced ejection fraction. Additional risk factors for HFrEF include male sex, age, cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases.
  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction , previously known as diastolic heart failure, is heart failure in people who don’t have a significant change in ejection fraction. Additional risk factors for HFpEF include atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, high body mass index , and smoking.

Another type of heart failure called right-sided heart failure can develop. However, it’s a more uncommon condition with different causes and symptoms.

What Medications Should I Avoid If I Have Heart Failure

There are several different types of medications that are best avoided in those with heart failure including:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as Motrin or Aleve. For relief of aches, pains, or fever take Tylenol instead.
  • Most calcium channel blockers
  • Some nutritional supplements, such as salt substitutes, and growth hormone therapies
  • Antacids that contain sodium

If youâre taking any of these drugs, discuss them with your doctor.

Itâs important to know the names of your medications, what theyâre used for, and how often and at what times you take them. Keep a list of your medications and bring them with you to each of your doctor visits. Never stop taking your medications without discussing it with your doctor. Even if you have no symptoms, your medications decrease the work of your heart so that it can pump more effectively.

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Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

In diastolic heart failure , the same pathophysiologic processes occur that lead to decreased cardiac output in systolic heart failure, but they do so in response to a different set of hemodynamic and circulatory environmental factors that depress cardiac output.

In HFpEF, altered relaxation and increased stiffness of the ventricle occur in response to an increase in ventricular afterload . The impaired relaxation of the ventricle then leads to impaired diastolic filling of the left ventricle .

Morris et al found that right venticular subendocardial systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction, as detected by echocardiographic strain rate imaging, are common in patients with HFpEF. This dysfunction is potentially associated with the same fibrotic processes that affect the subendocardial layer of the LV and, to a lesser extent, with RV pressure overload. It may play a role in the symptomatology of patients with HFpEF.

How The Normal Heart Works

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) As A Result Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy ...

The normal healthy heart is a strong, muscular pump a little larger than a fist. It pumps blood continuously through the circulatory system.

The heart has four chambers, two on the right and two on the left:

  • Two upper chambers called atria
  • Two lower chambers called ventricles

The right atrium takes in oxygen-depleted blood from the rest of the body and sends it through the right ventricle where the blood becomes oxygenated in the lungs.

Oxygen-rich blood travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then on to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body.

The heart pumps blood to the lungs and to all the bodys tissues through a sequence of highly organized contractions of the four chambers. For the heart to function properly, the four chambers must beat in an organized way.

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Anemia And Iron Deficiency

Anemia is common among patients with chronic heart failure and is frequently multifactorial. Anemia is associated with worse symptoms and outcomes in HF and so reversible causes should be sought and treated. Iron deficiency Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and usually results from blood loss malabsorption, such as with celiac disease, is a much less common cause. Symptoms are usually nonspecific… read more is among the most common causes of anemia in HF, and iron replacement therapy should be considered once treatable causes such as blood loss have been excluded. Oral iron replacement is often less effective due to poor absorption and other reasons, thus intravenous iron replacement is preferred.

Usmle Step 2 Style Questions Usmle

A previously healthy one-month-old infant is admitted to the hospital because of respiratory distress. He was born at term following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery. He had been well until 2 days ago when he developed fever and malaise. His is 162/min, respirations are 54/min, and is 64/48 mm Hg. Examination shows evidence of . A viral infection is suspected as the etiology of his acute heart failure. Which of the following is the most likely virus?

s used to describe a point at which the heart cant supply enough blood to meet the s demands.

This can happen in two ways, either the hearts ventricles cant pump blood hard enough during systole, called , or not enough blood fills into the ventricles during diastole, called .

In both cases, blood backs up into the lungs, causing congestion or fluid buildup, which is why its also often known as , or just CHF.

Congestive heart failure affects millions of people around the world and since it means that the s needs are not being met, it can ultimately lead to death.

Part of the reason why so many people are affected by heart failure, is that there are a wide variety of like and valvular disease that can impair the hearts ability to pump out blood andover timecan ultimately cause the heart to fail.

The heart rate is pretty intuitive, but the stroke volumes a little tricky.

So notice that not all the blood was pumped out right?

And the stroke volume is only a fraction of the total volume.

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Causes Of Heart Failure

The heart is a double pump made up of four chambers. Deoxygenated blood from the veins enters the right upper chamber , is passed to the right lower chamber , and then pumped to the lungs.

Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left upper chamber and then enters the left lower chamber . The blood is then pumped around the body, under pressure, via arteries.

In a person with heart failure, one or both ventricles dont empty properly. This leads to increased pressure in the atria and the nearby veins. This backlog of blood can affect the kidneys and lungs interfering with their function and leading to a build-up of fluid in the lungs, abdominal organs and legs.

In some people with heart failure, rather than failed pumping of the blood from the ventricle, there is failed relaxation of the ventricle.

If the heart is not pumping and becomes stiff and unable to relax, it can cause the blood to pool in the hearts ventricles. This can cause pressure build up and can put strain on the heart.

Heart failure can be caused by several conditions, including:

Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology

Congestive Heart Failure: Pathophysiology
  • 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OFPATHOPHYSIOLOGY OFCONGESTIVE HEARTCONGESTIVE HEARTFAILUREFAILURE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION:Blood goes out of the heart when the heart muscle contracts and comes into the heart when the muscle relaxes .Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart pumps bloodinadequately, leading to reduced blood flow which further weaken theheart.It can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder thatimpairs ability of ventricle to fill with or eject blood.Most people have no symptoms at first – shortness of breath and fatiguedevelop gradually over days to months.It can occur in any age, even in young children. But more commonamong older people.About 5,00,000 new cases occur each year. Worldwide, about 23
  • 3. Heart failure is called CCF/CHF because blood may build up in the tissuescausing congestion in those tissues.Accumulation of blood coming into the left side of the heart causescongestion in the lungs, making breathing difficult.Accumulation of blood coming into the right side of the heart causescongestion and fluid accumulation in other parts of the body, such as the legs.Heart failure CO kidney perfusion stim. Of RAA system
  • 4. Types of heart failure:
  • 6. SYMPTOMS:
  • 11. DIAGNOSISECGEchocardiographyChest X-raysBlood tests – electrolytes , measures of renalfunction, liver function tests, thyroid function tests, a complete bloodcount, elevated BNP.Angiography
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    When Should I Get Emergency Care

    Go to the ER or call 911 if you have:

    • New, unexplained, and severe chest pain that comes with shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, or weakness
    • Fast heart rate , especially if you are short of breath
    • Shortness of breath that doesn’t get better if you rest
    • Sudden weakness, or you can’t move your arms or legs
    • Sudden, severe headache
    • Fainting spells

    Health Teaching And Health Promotion

    Nursing care plans for patients with HF must include patient education to improve clinical outcomes and reduce hospital readmissions. Patients need education and guidance on self-monitoring of symptoms at home, medication compliance, daily weight monitoring, dietary sodium restriction to 2 to 3 g/day, and daily fluid restriction to 2 L/day. In addition, patients with HF need aggressive treatment for underlying risk factors and the potential triggers for HF exacerbations. Modifiable risk factors include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, nicotine use, alcohol use disorder, and recreational drug use, especially cocaine. Patients with sleep apnea and HF should be encouraged to use continuous positive airway pressure therapy as uncontrolled sleep apnea can also increase HF-associated morbidity and mortality.

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