What Happens In An Atrial Septal Defect
In an atrial septal defect, there’s an opening in the wall between the atria. As a result, some oxygenated blood from the left atrium flows through the hole in the septum into the right atrium, where it mixes with oxygen-poor blood and increases the total amount of blood that flows toward the lungs.
The increased blood flow to the lungs creates a swishing sound, known as a heart murmur. A heart murmur, along with other specific heart sounds, is often the first tip-off to a doctor that a teen has an ASD.
What Is A Hole In The Heart
A “hole” is a defect in the wall that separates the top two chambers of the heart. This defect allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.
- Holes can be present in the walls of the heart between the upper heart chambers or between the lower heart chambers.
- Many defects are small, cause no symptoms, and close without treatment.
- The diagnosis is suspected based on a typical heart murmur and is confirmed by echocardiography.
- Some septal defects that do not shrink on their own must be closed with a plug or other specialized device inserted through a catheter or with surgery.
If I Had Surgery To Close An Asd In Childhood What Can I Expect
A large ASD is usually closed in early childhood, even in patients with few symptoms, to prevent complications later. Some defects were closed with a patch of pericardium or synthetic material such as Dacron. However, many defects that required surgery may have been sewn closed without using a patch. The prognosis after ASD closure during childhood is excellent and late complications are uncommon.
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What Are The Causes Of Hole In The Heart
- Genetics:A child may be at a higher risk of septal defect if either parent has a congenital heart defect. However, it is quite rare for a family to have more than one child with a defect.
- The presence of other genetic disorders:Children with a hereditary disorder like Downs syndrome often also have a heart defect from birth.
- Smoking:Babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy are prone to various congenital heart defects like ASD and VSD.
Still, there are a lot of unknown factors contributing to the various causes of holes in the heart. Therefore, scientists and doctors are working tirelessly to discover and research the various causes of holes in the heart.
What Is Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery For Children
Ventricular septal defect surgery is a type of heart surgery. It’s done to correct a hole between the left and right ventricles of the heart.
The heart has 4 chambers: 2 upper and 2 lower . Blood that is high in oxygen flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle and out to the body, where the vital organs use the oxygen. Blood with less oxygen flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle and out to the lungs. There, it picks up more oxygen. Normally, a wall is present between the left and right atria and between the left and right ventricles. A child with a VSD has a hole in the wall between the left and right ventricles. The hole lets blood flow abnormally from the left ventricle into the right ventricle. As a result, too much blood may go to the lungs.
During this surgery, a surgeon makes a cut down the front of the chest and divides the breastbone to reach the heart. A heart-lung machine is used to pump blood and act as the lungs during the surgery. Then the surgeon patches up the hole between the ventricles. Over time, the childs own cells grow over the patch, anchoring it in place even more.
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What If The Defect Is Still Present Should It Be Repaired In Adulthood
If the opening is small, surgery or other treatments may not be needed.
Most large atrial septal defects now can be closed either with open-heart surgery or during a cardiac catheterization using a device inserted into the opening to plug it ). However, if the ASD is in an unusual position within the heart, or if there are other heart defects such as abnormal connections of the veins bringing blood from the lungs back to the heart , the ASD cannot be closed with the catheter technique. Then surgery is needed. Even when the defect is discovered in adulthood, patients benefit from closure of large defects.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Hole In The Heart
At times, hole-in-heart symptoms can be so trivial that their impact does not appear for many years or until adulthood, while at other times, it may require immediate attention. On the same line, according to a renowned cardiologist, many babies do not show symptoms of ASD. However, the symptoms may begin in adulthood around the age of 30 or even later. Signs of ASD include:
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Hole In Heart Surgery Risks And Prevention
Hole in the heart is a congenital medical condition present during birth. Medically these conditions are known as Atrial Septal defect and Ventricular septal defect depending upon the part of the heart where the hole is present. These conditions may have an impact on healthy life and the patient may experience difficulty breathing, difficulty speaking and there may be a delay in developmental milestones. The condition can be treated with surgery. Like other major surgeries, there are various hole in heart surgery risks.
What Causes The Hole In The Heart
A septal defect is a hole in the wall that separates the heart into the left and right sides. Atrial septal defects are located between the heart’s upper chambers . Ventricular septal defects are located between the lower chambers . In both types, some oxygenated blood, intended for the body, is short-circuited. It is returned to the lungs rather than pumped to the rest of the body.
Congenital heart defects arise from problems early in the heart’s development, but there’s often no clear cause. Genetics and environmental factors may play a role. VSDs can occur alone or with other congenital heart defects.
A Stroke With An Unknown Cause
Most people who have a PFO do nothave any symptoms. It may cause worry, though, if someone has a stroke withoutany clear cause.
If a stroke cant be attributed to acommon cause , that means its possible that the PFOallowed a blood clot to travel through to the brain.
If there is no communication between the two sides of the heart, the blood clot would have gone to the lungs, Dr. Reed explains.
Most small blood clots that go tothe lungs cause no symptoms. However, if they are large enough, they couldcause a pulmonary embolism, which is more serious but can usually be treatedwith medications.
What Are The Risks Of Going Through Hole In Heart Surgery
Do you know the heart we all need to live is divided in 4 chambers? The upper 2 chambers are atria and lower 2 are ventricles. The blood that is oxygen rich enters to the left atrium and flows towards left ventricle and then out of the body. This oxygen is used by the vital organs. On the other hand, the blood with less amount of oxygen in it flows from the right atrium to right ventricle and went out to the lungs.
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What Should I Expect After Surgery
You’ll have follow-up visits with your doctor as you recover from catheterization or surgery. He or she may repeat an echocardiogram at these visits.
For 6 months after surgery or catheterization, ASD patients need to take antibiotics before a visit to the dentist or if they need certain other kinds of surgery, such as tonsil removal. This is to prevent bacteria from getting into the bloodstream and causing infective endocarditis , an infection of the inner surface of the heart. When the heart tissue has healed over the closed ASD, most patients no longer need to worry about the risk of infective endocarditis.
After their ASD is closed and they’ve had plenty of time to heal, most teens have no further symptoms or problems.
What Are The Long
Normally, the right side of the heart pumps blood that is low in oxygen to the lungs, while the hearts left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body. When there is an ASD, blood from the left and right sides mix, and the heart generally does not work at its most efficient level.
The risk of problems is greater when the defect is large .
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What Are The Risks Or Complications Of Asd Closure
ASD closure is usually safe and effective, but it does carry some risks, including:
- Allergies to materials used during the procedure.
- Abnormal heart rhythm .
- Bleeding, which may require a blood transfusion.
- Damage or puncture of heart tissue or veins, requiring surgical correction.
- Infection of the incision or around the closure device.
Some complications can be life-threatening.
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How Are Ventricular Septal Defects Treated
Treatment depends on a child’s age and the size, location, and severity of the VSD. A child with a small defect that causes no symptoms may only need to visit a cardiologist regularly to make sure there are no other problems.
In many kids, a small defect will close on its own without surgery. Some might not close, but they won’t get any larger. Kids with small VSDs usually don’t need to restrict their activities.
Kids with medium to large VSDs might need prescription medicines to aid circulation and help the heart work better. Medicines alone, though, won’t close the VSD. So, the cardiologist may recommend heart surgery to fix the hole. In rare cases, the VSD could be closed by cardiac catheterization instead.
Surgery usually is done within the first few weeks to months of a child’s life. The surgeon makes an incision in the chest wall and a heart-lung machine will maintain circulation while the surgeon closes the hole. The surgeon can stitch the hole closed directly or, more commonly, will sew a patch of manmade surgical material over it. Eventually, the tissue of the heart heals over the patch or stitches. By 6 months after the surgery, tissue will completely cover the hole.
How Are Atrial Septal Defects Diagnosed
After hearing the heart murmur that suggests a hole in the atrial septum, a doctor may refer a teen to a pediatric cardiologist, a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating heart disease in kids and teens.
The cardiologist will do a physical exam and take a medical history, asking you about any concerns and symptoms you have, your past health, your family’s health, any medicines you’re taking, and other issues relating to the heart.
The cardiologist might order one or more of these tests:
- a chest X-ray, which produces a picture of the heart and surrounding organs
- an electrocardiogram , which records the electrical activity of the heart
- an echocardiogram , which uses sound waves to create a picture of the heart
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How Do I Help My Child Get Ready For Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery
Ask your childs healthcare provider how to help your child get ready for VSD repair. Your child should not eat or drink anything after midnight before the day of the surgery. Your child may also need to stop taking any medicine beforehand.
Your childs healthcare provider may want some extra tests before the surgery. These might include:
- Electrocardiogram, to look at the heart rhythm
- Blood tests, to check general health
- Echocardiogram, to look at heart anatomy and blood flow through the heart
Why Might My Child Need Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery
The purpose of this surgery is to ease symptoms caused by the VSD and to prevent future symptoms. No one knows what causes most cases of this common heart defect.
Not everyone with a VSD needs to have the hole repaired. Very small holes in the ventricular septum may not let much blood pass between the ventricles. In these cases, the heart and lungs dont have to work harder and no repairs are needed. These smaller holes dont cause any symptoms. Sometimes these small holes will close up on their own naturally. Your childs healthcare provider might wait to see whether that happens before planning to do a repair, especially in a very young child.
If your child has a larger VSD, he or she may need some type of repair. Infants and children with larger VSDs often have symptoms like breathing faster and harder than normal. They may also fail to gain weight normally. A large, unrepaired VSD can eventually cause elevated pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs. The higher pressure can lead to decreased oxygen levels in the body.
Healthcare providers often recommend some type of repair for children who have a large VSD, even if they dont have symptoms yet. It can prevent long-term damage to the lungs. Healthcare providers often do the surgery in infants or children. Sometimes adults also need this type of repair if their VSD was not found during childhood.
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Chd Treatment & Surgeries
Catheter Procedures : Catheter procedures are much easier on patients than surgery. They involve only a needle puncture in the skin where the catheter is inserted into a vein or an artery.Doctors dont have to surgically open the chest or operate directly on the heart to repair the defect. This means that recovery may be easier and quicker.Open Heart Surgery: Sometimes certain heart defects require the chest be opened in order to make repairs or, in rare cases, to make a heart transplant.
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What Problems Can Happen
Infants with a large VSD can develop heart failure, and have feeding problems that lead to poor weight gain. They also may get chest infections often. Children with a small VSD are at risk for developing endocarditis, an infection of the inner surface of the heart caused by bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteria are always in our mouths, and small amounts get into the bloodstream when we chew and brush our teeth.
Good dental hygiene to reduce oral bacteria is the best way to protect the heart from endocarditis. Kids should brush and floss daily, and see their dentist regularly. In general, patients with simple VSDs don’t need to take antibiotics before dental visits, except for the first 6 months after VSD surgery.
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What Is Asd Closure
ASD closure is a procedure to close an atrial septal defect or hole in your heart.
An atrial septal defect is an abnormal opening in the wall between your hearts two upper chambers . Every baby is born with a small opening there. The hole usually closes a few weeks or months after birth. But sometimes a baby is born with a larger hole that doesnt close properly.
Coarctation Of The Aorta
If your child has the more serious form of coarctation of the aorta that develops shortly after birth, surgery to restore the flow of blood through the aorta is usually recommended in the first few days of life.
Several surgical techniques can be used, including:
- removing the narrowed section of the aorta and reconnecting the 2 remaining ends
- inserting a catheter into the aorta and widening it with a balloon or metal tube
- removing sections of blood vessels from other parts of your child’s body and using them to create an aorta in the region of the coarctation or bypass around the site of the blockage
Sometimes, older children and adults can develop a newly diagnosed coarctation or partial recurrence of the previous blockage. The main goal of treatment will be to control high blood pressure using a combination of diet, exercise and medicine.
Some people will need to have the narrowed section of the aorta widened with a balloon and stent.
Read more about treating high blood pressure.
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What Is A Ventricular Septal Defect
A ventricular septal defect sometimes referred to as a hole in the heart is a type of congenital heart defect. In a VSD, there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the main pumping chambers of the heart .
VSDs are the most common congenital heart defect. Most VSDs are diagnosed and treated successfully with few or no complications.
Transposition Of The Great Arteries
As with treatment for single ventricle defects, your baby will be given an injection of a medication called prostaglandin shortly after birth. This will prevent the passage between the aorta and pulmonary arteries closing after birth.
Keeping the ductus arteriosus open means that oxygen-rich blood is able to mix with oxygen-poor blood, which should help relieve your baby’s symptoms.
In some cases, it may also be necessary to use a catheter to create a temporary hole in the atrial septum to further encourage the mixing of blood.
Once your baby’s health has stabilised, it’s likely that surgery will be recommended. This should ideally be carried out during the first month of the baby’s life. A surgical technique called arterial switch is used, which involves detaching the transposed arteries and reattaching them in the correct position.