Causes Of Heart Attack And Heart Failure
A heart attack can occur when a piece of plaque breaks off and causes the blood surrounding your heart to clot. This makes it impossible for blood to flow in and out of your heart muscles as usual. You could also have a heart attack due to a spasm occurring in your coronary artery. This is true even if you dont have a problem with hardening of the arteries. A third possible cause of a heart attack is a tear in the coronary arterys wall. However, this is not common.
When your heart must pump blood through a blocked, narrow space, it will become weaker over time. You will eventually experience heart failure because your heart isnt receiving all the blood that it needs. While this is the most typical cause of heart failure, several others exist as well.
What Techniques Are Used In Echocardiography
Several techniques can be used to create pictures of your heart. The best technique depends on your specific condition and what your provider needs to see. These techniques include:
- Two-dimensional ultrasound. This approach is used most often. It produces 2D images that appear as slices on the computer screen. Traditionally, these slices could be stacked to build a 3D structure.
- Three-dimensional ultrasound. Advances in technology have made 3D imaging more efficient and useful. New 3D techniques show different aspects of your heart, including how well it pumps blood, with greater accuracy. Using 3D also allows your sonographer to see parts of your heart from different angles.
- Doppler ultrasound. This technique shows how fast your blood flows, and also in what direction.
- Color Doppler ultrasound. This technique also shows your blood flow, but it uses different colors to highlight the different directions of flow.
- Strain imaging. This approach shows changes in how your heart muscle moves. It can catch early signs of some heart disease.
- Contrast imaging. Your provider injects a substance called a contrast agent into one of your veins. The substance is visible in the images and can help show details of your heart. Some people experience an allergic reaction to the contrast agent, but reactions are usually mild.
Symptoms Of Heart Failure
Symptoms of heart failure include:
- new or worsening shortness of breath
- difficulty lying flat at night
- fainting or passing out
- muscular fatigue, tiredness
- swelling of ankles or legs
- swelling of abdomen
- heart palpitations
- chest pain or discomfort in parts of the upper body
- unexplained coughing and wheezing
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How Can I Take Care Of Myself With Cardiomyopathy
Lifestyle choices can affect how quickly cardiomyopathy progresses. To manage symptoms and increase your heart health, your provider may recommend:
- Achieving and maintaining an ideal weight for your height and age.
- Eating a heart-healthy diet, including reducing your sodium intake.
- Managing underlying conditions such as sleep apnea or diabetes.
- Scheduling regular checkups with a healthcare provider.
- Taking all medications as prescribed.
A Note From Cleveland Clinic
Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of your heart muscle. There are many types of cardiomyopathy. Some are inherited. Others develop from underlying conditions such as coronary artery disease. Treatment for cardiomyopathy may include medications, lifestyle changes or surgery. Although there is no cure for cardiomyopathy, you can manage the condition. People who receive treatment can live a high quality of life with cardiomyopathy.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 04/28/2021.
What Is The Difference Between Congestive Heart Failure And Congenital Heart Disease
February 23, 2022 Posted by Dr.Samanthi
The key differencebetween congestive heart failure and congenital heart disease is that congestive heart failure is a medical condition in the heart caused due to old age, while congenital heart disease is a medical condition in the heart caused due to birth defects.
Congestive heart failure and congenital heart disease are two types of heart conditions affecting the heart. There are many different heart conditions. Normally, heart conditions affect the hearts ability to work efficiently.
Congestive Heart Failure Prognosis
CHF prognosis depends on the stage of disease, what caused the disease and how effective the treatment is.
In general, people with class I or II CHF have the best prognosis. People with heart failure caused by coronary artery disease or primary cardiomyopathy had worse survival rates than people with other causes, according to researcher M. Matoba and colleagues at the Kanazawa Medical University in Japan.
Average CHF Survival Rates
: Japanese Circulation Journal
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What Is The Outlook For People With Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy is a serious condition. Without treatment, it can be life-threatening. Cardiomyopathy is also a progressive condition, meaning it usually worsens over time.
Cardiomyopathy treatment can improve your outlook. If you have cardiomyopathy, seek treatment from a cardiologist . Medication, surgery or other treatments can increase your quality of life and help you live longer.
How Is An Exercise Stress Echocardiogram Done
An exercise stress echo, sometimes simply called a stress echo, shows how your heart works when its taxed. The test resembles a traditional exercise stress test. A technician will monitor your heart rate and rhythm as well as your blood pressure . But theyll also use echo imaging .
This test shows how well your heart can withstand activity. Your sonographer takes pictures before you start exercising and then right after youre done.
In some cases, you wont exercise. Instead, your provider will give you medication to make your heart work harder as if you were exercising. The goal is to force your heart to need more oxygen.
When your heart is under stress, your sonographer can see details they might not be able to see if you were lying on the exam table. These include problems with your coronary arteries or the lining of your heart.
Preparing for an exercise stress echo
Your provider will give you detailed instructions on how to prepare for your test. An exercise stress echo needs more preparation than other types of echo testing. These include:
- Not eating or drinking anything except water for at least four hours before your test.
- Not smoking on the day of your test.
- Avoiding caffeine for 24 hours before your test. This includes caffeine in any form .
You wont be sedated, but you still may want to ask someone to drive you to and from the appointment. You may feel tired after the test.
What to expect during an exercise stress echo
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What Medications Should I Avoid If I Have Heart Failure
There are several different types of medications that are best avoided in those with heart failure including:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as Motrin or Aleve. For relief of aches, pains, or fever take Tylenol instead.
- Most calcium channel blockers
- Some nutritional supplements, such as salt substitutes, and growth hormone therapies
- Antacids that contain sodium
If youâre taking any of these drugs, discuss them with your doctor.
Itâs important to know the names of your medications, what theyâre used for, and how often and at what times you take them. Keep a list of your medications and bring them with you to each of your doctor visits. Never stop taking your medications without discussing it with your doctor. Even if you have no symptoms, your medications decrease the work of your heart so that it can pump more effectively.
What Are The Treatments For Heart Failure
Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and how serious it is. Theres no cure for heart failure. But treatment can help you live longer with fewer symptoms.
Even with treatment, heart failure usually gets worse over time, so youll likely need treatment for the rest of your life.
Most treatment plans include:
You may need heart surgery if:
- You have a congenital heart defect or damage to your heart that can be fixed.
- The left side of your heart is getting weaker and putting a device in your chest could help. Devices include:
- A biventricular pacemaker .
- A mechanical heart pump or a total artificial heart).
As part of your treatment, youll need to pay close attention to your symptoms, because heart failure can worsen suddenly. Your provider may suggest a cardiac rehabilitation program to help you learn how to manage your condition.
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Heart Failure Vs Congestive Heart Failure: Whats The Difference
Heart failure affects people of all ages, from children and young adults to the middle-aged and older adults. About 6.2 million adults in the United States are currently living with heart failure, and over 64 million people are dealing with some form of heart failure worldwide.
Approximately 550,000 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year, but many more remain undiagnosed as the initial symptoms of heart failure can be subtle and mimic similar symptoms seen in other conditions.
Congestive heart failure refers to the inadequate functioning of the heart muscle such that fluid builds up in the lungs, abdomen, feet, and arms . The condition can either be acute or chronic .
Untreated heart disease can be aggressive and fatal. The five-year survival rate is about 50% for all stages. In 2018, heart failure led to nearly 400,000 deaths, according to death certificate data, with the highest prevalence of disease primarily in the South and Midwest.
Surgery And Percutaneous Procedures
Surgery may be appropriate when certain underlying disorders are present. Surgery in patients with advanced HF should be done in a specialized center.
Surgical closure of congenital or acquired intracardiac shunts can be curative.
If HF is primarily due to a valvular disorder Overview of Cardiac Valvular Disorders Any heart valve can become stenotic or insufficient , causing hemodynamic changes long before symptoms. Most often, valvular stenosis or insufficiency… read more , valve repair or replacement should be considered. Patients with primary mitral regurgitation are more likely to benefit than patients with mitral regurgitation secondary to LV dilation, in whom poor myocardial function is likely to continue postoperatively. Surgery is preferably done before myocardial dilation and damage become irreversible. More recently, percutaneous mitral valve repair procedure, in which a clip is applied to approximate the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets, has been shown to reduce death and HF hospitalization in carefully selected patients with symptomatic HF despite optimal medical management and moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation with preserved LV size is a syndrome of ventricular dysfunction. Left ventricular failure causes shortness of breath and fatigue, and right ventricular failure causes peripheral and abdominal fluid… read more ).
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How Common Are These Procedures How Often Are These Procedures Performed
Heart transplants overall are uncommon. In 2020, there were just under 8,200 transplants worldwide. The overwhelming majority of those were in the United States. Other countries with the highest numbers of transplants were Germany, France and Spain.
Heart transplants are uncommon for two reasons:
- Donor heart shortage. Transplanting a heart requires a donor, and donors are in short supply. Part of the reason it’s hard to find a donor is because the donor and recipient must be a “match.” Without this matching, the recipient’s immune system is more likely to reject the donor’s heart.
- Transplant complexity. Heart transplants are very complicated surgeries, and there are fewer than 150 hospitals in the U.S. that perform them.
How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you many questions about your symptoms and medical history. Youâll be asked about any conditions you have that may cause heart failure . Youâll be asked if you smoke, take drugs, drink alcohol , and about what drugs you take.
Youâll also get a complete physical exam. Your doctor will listen to your heart and look for signs of heart failure as well as other illnesses that may have caused your heart muscle to weaken or stiffen.
Your doctor may also order other tests to determine the cause and severity of your heart failure. These include:
Other tests may be ordered, depending on your condition.
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What Is Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure is a medical condition caused due to old age. This is a heart condition in which the heart is not able to handle the blood volume. Ultimately, this causes an accumulation of blood in other parts of the body, most commonly in the lungs and lower extremities such as feet and legs. The symptoms of this heart condition may include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in ankles, legs, and abdomen, weight gain, frequent urination, irregular heartbeats, dry cough, bloated stomach, loss of appetite, and nausea. Moreover, congestive heart failure can lead to complications such as irregular heartbeat, sudden cardiac arrest, heart valve problem, collection of fluid in lungs, pulmonary hypertension, kidney damage, liver damage, and malnutrition.
Figure 01: Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure is a chronic condition, and it gets worse with time. There are four stages in congestive heart failure: A, B, C, D. Stage A and B are pre heart failure stages, while C and D are heart failure stages. Congestive heart failure is very common in old age.
What Is The Importance Of Ejection Fraction
Your ejection fraction is one way to measure the severity of your condition. If its below normal, it can mean that you have heart failure. Your ejection fraction tells your healthcare provider how good of a job your left or right ventricle is doing at pumping blood. Usually, your EF number is talking about how much blood your left ventricle is pumping out because its your hearts main pumping chamber.
Several non-invasive tests can measure your EF. With this information, your healthcare provider can decide how to treat you or find out if a treatment is working as it should.
A normal left ventricular ejection fraction is 53% to 70%. An LVEF of 65%, for example, means that 65% of the total amount of blood in your left ventricle is pumped out with each heartbeat. Your EF can go up and down, based on your heart condition and how well your treatment works.
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Treating Chf In Louisiana
For patients suffering from CHF, skilled medical treatment is critical to managing the condition and maintaining health. Cardiovascular Institute of the South is home to many renowned and respected cardiologists. Our physicians are experienced and highly-qualified in the treatment of congestive heart failure, along with all other forms of cardiovascular disease. To request an appointment at any one of our locations across south Louisiana and Mississippi, click the button below.
Types Of Heart Failure
There are several anatomical types of heart failure that can lead to CHF. Both the right and left sides of the heart can fail, but left-sided heart failure is much more common than right-sided heart failure.
Most of the hearts pumping power comes from the left side. The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body. If the large and powerful chambers of the left ventricle and left atrium begin to fail, the left side of the heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Over time, blood can build up in the pulmonary veins, leading to shortness of breath and trouble breathing, especially during physical activity. If left untreated, the right side of the heart may begin to fail as well.
There are two types of left-sided heart failure: heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction .
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Coronary Artery Disease Linked To Both Conditions
Heart disease and heart attack both share coronary artery disease as a primary cause. This occurs over time when your arteries narrow and harden due to deposits of plaque from fat and other types of substances found in food. This is one reason why a healthy diet low in fat and cholesterol is so important.
Whats The Outlook After This Procedure
About 91% of adult heart transplant recipients live at least one year after the surgery. The risk of death is highest in the first year, and the most common causes of death within the first year are graft failure, rejection or infection.
After the first year, graft failure remains one of the most common causes of death, with cancer rising and becoming more common after five years. This is because cancer is a cell malfunction that makes those cells reproduce uncontrollably. Your immune system usually detects those malfunctioning cells and stops them before they become a big problem . The immune-suppressing drugs you take to avoid organ rejection also reduce your bodys ability to stop malfunctioning cells.
About half of all people who receive a heart transplant will live more than 10 years after the procedure. Advances in medicine and transplant care mean more and more people live 20 to 30 years or more after their transplant.
Heart transplants in children
Pediatric heart transplant recipients, children ages 17 and under, also tend to have good outcomes. About 92% will live at least one year after their transplant, and slightly more than 70% will live at least 10 years.
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When Should I Get Emergency Care
Go to the ER or call 911 if you have:
- New, unexplained, and severe chest pain that comes with shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, or weakness
- Fast heart rate , especially if you are short of breath
- Shortness of breath that doesn’t get better if you rest
- Sudden weakness, or you can’t move your arms or legs
- Sudden, severe headache
- Fainting spells