Saturday, February 4, 2023

Heart Attack Side Effects

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Medicines For Heart Attack

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To treat your heart attack in the ambulance or hospital, your doctor may prescribe a medicine called thrombolysis .

Thrombolysis is a treatment to dissolve blood clots that are narrowing or blocking a coronary artery. The clot-busting medicine is given to you through a drip. Dissolving the clot improves blood flow to your heart muscle and around your body.

To reduce the risk of future heart attacks, your doctor will also start you on medicines while youre recovering in hospital. You will need to continue taking these over the long-term.

Its very important to keep taking your medicines unless your doctor or cardiologist tells you to stop. Have regular check-ups with your doctor so they can review your medicines and adjust them as needed.

Commonly prescribed medicines after a heart attack include:

  • antithrombotic medicines like anticoagulants and antiplatelets to reduce the risk of blood clots forming
  • beta blockers to lower blood pressure and regulate your heart rate and rhythm
  • blood pressure medicines like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to make it easier for your heart to pump blood and lower blood pressure by widening your blood vessels
  • cholesterol-modifying medicines to reduce your cholesterol levels.

What Did The Abstract Say

Researchers used something called the Protein Unstable Lesion Signature Cardiac Test in 566 people visiting a cardiac clinic. All of these individuals had recently received the second dose of one of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines .

The PULS Cardiac Test claims to predict heart attack risk over a 5-year period by measuring nine different markers in a blood sample. After the marker levels are determined, a score is generated. A higher PULS score may indicate an increased heart attack risk.

In the individuals tested, three of the nine markers had increased following vaccination. These markers were associated with inflammation. The increase boosted the PULS score by a predicted 11 percent compared to pre-vaccination levels.

Symptoms Of A Heart Attack

Symptoms of a heart attack can include:

  • chest pain a feeling of pressure, heaviness, tightness or squeezing across your chest
  • pain in other parts of the body it can feel as if the pain is spreading from your chest to your arms , jaw, neck, back and tummy
  • feeling lightheaded or dizzy
  • feeling sick or being sick
  • an overwhelming feeling of anxiety
  • coughing or wheezing

The chest pain is often severe, but some people may only experience minor pain, similar to indigestion.

While the most common symptom in both men and women is chest pain, women are more likely to have other symptoms such as shortness of breath, feeling or being sick and back or jaw pain.

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Are You Finding It Hard To Get Medical Help

We know that many of you are experiencing delays to treatment at this time, or have questions and concerns about getting medical help. We’ve created this set of information to help you with these issues.

If you are having emergency heart attack symptoms, do not wait for an appointment and call 999 immediately.

What Not To Do After A Heart Attack

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Give your heart a chance to heal after a heart attack. This means you may need to modify your normal routine and reconsider certain activities for several weeks.

Gradually ease back into your everyday routine so you dont risk a relapse. You may have to modify your daily activities if theyre stressful.

It may take up to 3 months before your doctor gives you the OK to go back to work.

Depending on the stress level of your job, you may need to significantly cut back on your workload or ease back into it on a part-time basis.

You may not be able to drive a vehicle for at least a week after your heart attack. This restriction may be longer if you have complications.

Each state has different laws, but the general rule is that your condition must be stable for at least 3 weeks before youre allowed to drive again.

Your doctor will likely advise you to hold off on sex and other physical activities for at least 2 to 3 weeks after your heart attack.

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Are There Complications Of A Heart Attack

Complications following a heart attack can include:

  • Arrhythmia your heart may develop an irregular heartbeat following a heart attack due to damaged heart muscles disrupting electrical signals.
  • Heart failure your heart may have ongoing difficulty pumping enough blood, due to its muscles being too weak or stiff.
  • Cardiogenic shock where your whole body goes into shock from extensive heart muscle damage.
  • Heart rupture this is a rare but serious complication in which the hearts muscles, walls or valves split apart.

These can be dangerous if untreated, but your healthcare team will help to manage them if they occur.

How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Having A Heart Attack

Although there are several risk factors that you cant control, there are many ways you can help yourself and reduce your risk of a heart attack. These include:

Being an active contributor to your health doesnt mean you have to make lifestyle changes all on your own. Ask your primary care provider and other providers on your healthcare team for help. They can provide the information and resources you need.

If youve already had a heart attack, your healthcare provider will recommend a cardiac rehabilitation program. This programs goals are to reduce your chance of a second heart attack. These medically supervised programs provide counseling and focus on the same healthy living goals listed above.

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Symptoms Of Cardiac Arrest

Sometimes a complication called ventricular arrhythmia can cause the heart to stop beating. This is known as sudden cardiac arrest.

Signs and symptoms suggesting a person has gone into cardiac arrest include:

  • they appear not to be breathing
  • they’re not moving
  • they don’t respond to any stimulation, such as being touched or spoken to

Provoking An Immune Attack On The Heart

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In 2021, many of the same researchers involved in this new study published a paper describing a mouse model of ICI-induced myocarditis they had developed. With this model in hand, Dr. Balko said, the team could start to more thoroughly investigate why this inflammation occurs and, possibly, how to prevent it.

Some of the teams findings were expected, Dr. Balko said. An overabundance of T cells is a hallmark of inflammation, so it wasnt surprising that they found so many T cells in and around the hearts of the mice with myocarditis.

But two other key findings were more of a surprise. One was that most of the T cells were CD8+ T cells, the kind of T cells that are primarily responsible for killing infected or diseased cells. The other was that a heavy presence of CD8+ T cells was a prerequisite for this type of myocarditis. Large populations of other types of T cells, they showed, did not cause serious inflammation in the heart.

They also speculated from the beginning that -myosin may be involved in myocarditis, Dr. Balko noted. As a protein thats critical to the hearts contracting functions, its one of the most common proteins in the heart. And earlier studies had linked the protein with myocarditis.

Focusing on -myosin proved to be fruitful. For example, not only did -myosin induce the production of more T cells , but many of the T cells in and around the hearts of the mice with myocarditis only recognizedand grabbed on to-myosin.

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What’s The Difference Between Angina And A Heart Attack

Angina is pain felt in your chest often caused by coronary heart disease. As the symptoms of angina are similar to a heart attack, its important to know how to distinguish between the two. If you havent been diagnosed with angina and you start experiencing chest pain that feels similar to the symptoms of a heart attack, phone 999 immediately.If you have angina and you start experiencing chest pain symptoms similar to a heart attack:

  • sit down and rest
  • use your glyceryl trinitrate spray that youve been prescribed
  • if the pain still persists after a few minutes, take another dose of your spray
  • if the pain doesnt go away a few minutes after your second dose, dial 999 immediately.

A Repository To Improve Research On Immunotherapy Side Effects

NCI is funding a study to collect blood and tissue samples and clinical data on people who have serious side effects from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. This repository, Dr. Sharon explained, is designed to help researchers learn a lot more about potentially severe and life-threatening side effects and to identify potential ways to prevent and treat them.

Funded in part by the Cancer MoonshotSM, the effort is being led by the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology and is being conducted at more than 500 hospitals and clinics across the United States. Currently, the study is enrolling people who are about to initiate ICI treatment and patients who have experienced a serious side effect from these treatments.

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Heart Attack Warning Signs

Heart attack is a leading cause of death in New Zealand. Learn to recognise the warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack, so you know what to do if you see or experience them.

Minutes matter – if you think you are having a heart attack, call 111 now.

Too many New Zealanders die or live with permanent disability because of the lack of awareness of heart attack warning signs and delays in seeking medical help. Even if you have had a heart attack, you may experience another – and next time, the symptoms can be different

Preventing Another Heart Attack

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A heart attack can be a life-changing event. Its normal to feel scared, confused and overwhelmed after a heart attack.

The good news is there are many resources available to support you in recovering after a heart attack.

Having one heart attack increases your risk of having another. Participating in cardiac rehabilitation, taking your medicines as prescribed and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the likelihood of a future heart attack. Being part of a support group can be useful for some people too.

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What Are The Risk Factors For Heart Attack

Several health conditions, your lifestyle, and your age and family history can increase your risk for heart disease and heart attack. These are called risk factors. About half of all Americans have at least one of the three key risk factors for heart disease: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and smoking.2

Some risk factors cannot be controlled, such as your age or family history. But you can take steps to lower your risk by changing the factors you can control.

Learn more about risk factors for heart disease and heart attack.

What Should I Do If I Think Im Having A Heart Attack

The first thing you must do is dial 999 immediately for an ambulance. Dont worry if youre not completely sure whether your symptoms are a heart attack, its really important that you seek medical attention regardless as quickly as possible.

Next, you should:

  • take a 300mg aspirin if you have one within arms reach
  • stay calm and wait for the paramedics.

People often dismiss that theyre having a heart attack and will delay seeking medical attention. If youre with someone whos experiencing heart attack symptoms but theyre putting off or refusing to call an ambulance, its really important that you call one for them.

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What Can I Do To Recover After A Heart Attack

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If youve had a heart attack, your heart may be damaged. This could affect your hearts rhythm and its ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. You may also be at risk for another heart attack or conditions such as stroke, kidney disorders, and peripheral arterial disease .

You can lower your chances of having future health problems following a heart attack with these steps:

  • Physical activityTalk with your health care team about the things you do each day in your life and work. Your doctor may want you to limit work, travel, or sexual activity for some time after a heart attack.
  • Lifestyle changesEating a healthier diet, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and managing stressin addition to taking prescribed medicinescan help improve your heart health and quality of life. Ask your health care team about attending a program called cardiac rehabilitation to help you make these lifestyle changes.
  • Cardiac rehabilitationCardiac rehabilitation is an important program for anyone recovering from a heart attack, heart failure, or other heart problem that required surgery or medical care. Cardiac rehab is a supervised program that includes
  • Physical activity
  • Education about healthy living, including healthy eating, taking medicine as prescribed, and ways to help you quit smoking
  • Counseling to find ways to relieve stress and improve mental health

Preventing A Heart Attack

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There are 5 main steps you can take to reduce your risk of having a heart attack :

  • smokers should quit smoking
  • lose weight if you’re overweight or obese
  • do regular exercise adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, unless advised otherwise by the doctor in charge of your care
  • eat a low-fat, high-fibre diet, including wholegrains and at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day
  • moderate your alcohol consumption

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What’s The Difference Between Indigestion And A Heart Attack

Indigestion, or heartburn, is a feeling that usually comes on after eating. It causes a burning and uncomfortable sensation in your chest and abdomen, and often a sour taste in your mouth.If you havent experienced heartburn or indigestion before and you’re experiencing persistent burning chest pain or chest pain combined with other heart attack symptoms, phone 999 immediately.If youre prone to heartburn or indigestion and youre experiencing the same symptoms as usual, take the steps you usually would to ease your discomfort, such as taking some medicine and/or drinking water.If the burning feeling in your chests persists, or it begins to spread to your arms, neck or jaw, phone 999 immediately as you may be having a heart attack.

Tips For Heart Attack Prevention

The goal after your heart attack is to keep your heart healthy and lower your risk of having another heart attack. Take your medications as directed, make healthy lifestyle changes, see your doctor for regular heart checkups, and consider a cardiac rehabilitation program.

Why do I need to take drugs after a heart attack?

You might take certain drugs after a heart attack to:

You might take medications that treat an uneven heartbeat, lower your blood pressure, control chest pain, and treat heart failure.

Know the names of your medications, what theyâre used for, and when you need to take them. Go over your medications with your doctor or nurse. Keep a list of all your medications, and take it to each of your doctor visits. If you have questions about them, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

It sounds like a no-brainer, but don’t skip your medications. Many people don’t take their medications the way their doctor told them to. Figure out what keeps you from taking your medicine — it could be side effects, cost, or forgetfulness — and ask your doctor for help.

What lifestyle changes are needed after a heart attack?

To keep heart disease from getting worse and to head off another heart attack, follow your doctor’s advice. You might need to change your lifestyle. Here are some changes you can make that can cut your risk and put you on the path to a healthier life:

Why should I take part in cardiac rehabilitation?

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Symptoms Vary Between Men And Women

As with men, womens most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfort. But women are somewhat more likely than men to experience some of the other common symptoms, particularly shortness of breath, nausea/vomiting, and back or jaw pain.

How Soon After Treatment Will I Feel Better

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In general, your heart attack symptoms should decrease as you receive treatment. Youll likely have some lingering weakness and fatigue during your hospital stay and for several days after. Your healthcare provider will give you guidance on rest, medications to take, etc.

Recovery from the treatments also varies, depending on the method of treatment. The average hospital stay for a heart attack is between four and five days. In general, expect to stay in the hospital for the following length of time:

  • Medication only: People treated with medication only have an average hospital stay of approximately six days.
  • PCI: Recovering from PCI is easier than surgery because its a less invasive method for treating a heart attack. The average length of stay for PCI is about four days.
  • CABG: Recovery from heart bypass surgery takes longer because its a major surgery. The average length of stay for CABG is about seven days.

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What Is A Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

Before you leave the hospital, your doctor may talk to you about a cardiac rehabilitation program. These programs provide information that will help you understand your risk factors. It will help you live a healthy lifestyle that can prevent future heart problems. You will learn about exercise and diet, and how to reach and maintain a healthy weight. You will also learn ways to control your stress level, your blood pressure, and your cholesterol levels.

Your cardiac rehabilitation program will probably start while you are still in the hospital. After you leave the hospital, your rehabilitation will continue in a rehab center. The rehab center may be at the hospital or in another location.

Most cardiac rehabilitation programs last 3 to 6 months. Your doctor will talk to you about how often you need to attend the program. Once you enroll in a cardiac rehabilitation program, regular attendance is important. The more lifestyle changes you make, the better your chances of preventing future heart problems.

The sooner you get medical help, the greater your chances of surviving a heart attack. Do not delay getting immediate medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of heart attack.

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