What Is The Prognosis If You Have Mild Congestive Heart Failure
As the population ages, the prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and mid-range ejection fraction increases. In a U.S. study of heart failure hospitalization, patients with preserved or mid-range ejection fraction accounted for more than 40% of all heart failure hospitalization. This is an increase of 10% over the previous decade. Heart failure hospitalizations strongly predict poor prognosis. The readmission rate and mortality within three months post-discharge reach 30% and 10% respectively and are similar to patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction .
So there is a lot of variability in the prognosis of patients with mild congestive heart failure. But for the patient who has been admitted to the hospital, this is usually a marker of the severity of the illness and may prompt a physician to be more aggressive with medical therapy.
Can Heart Attack Damage Be Reversed As Assessed By Mri
Using MRI infarct size is an important predictor of mortality and major cardiovascular events. MRI spatial resolution allows for the detection of subendocardial infarcts. The infarct size calculation can be expressed as infarct mass and as a percentage of the LV or total myocardial mass. It correlates well with histology and PET scanning.
To perform MR imaging, we used a 1.5T whole body scanner and a phase array body coil that is wrapped around the patients chest. Some of our patients are claustrophobic and for the study, one of our research nurses usually has to stay with the patients. The protocol starts with anatomical stack localizer scout imaging to determine the orientation of the left ventricle short axis imaging plane. For evaluation of the left ventricular function, cine MR imaging is performed using ECG modified gated gradient echo sequences and breath holding technique. This results in dynamic images with high temporal resolution that allows for evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion and volumetric measurements. The study above evaluates the LV size and function in the long axis of the left ventricle. The wall motion analysis can be performed in the short axis, from the base of the heart to the apex as seen below.
What Happens During A Heart Attack
A heart attack happens when blood flow to a section of the heart becomes blocked. Heart attacks are different for everyone. Some are sudden and intense and sometimes accompanied by chest pain. Most heart attacks, however, start slowly with mild pain and discomfort. Symptoms can vary among men and women.
What Do I Do If I Have A Heart Attack
After a heart attack, you need quick treatment to open the blocked artery and lessen the damage. At the first signs of a heart attack, call 911. The best time to treat a heart attack is within 1 or 2 hours after symptoms begin. Waiting longer means more damage to your heart and a lower chance of survival.
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Precaution Tips After A Mild Heart Attack
If you have suffered a mild heart attack, your doctor may recommend some lifestyle and health changes in order to reduce your risk of experiencing a secondary cardiac event. These tips include:
Stop smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease, as it damages the walls of the blood vessels and may prevent blood and oxygen from reaching the heart and organs. Smoking tobacco also encourages the formation of blood clots that can cause heart attacks, while the nicotine found in cigarettes can raise your blood pressure.
Control your blood pressure: Managing your blood pressure can prevent excess stress from being placed on your heart and blood vessels. Talk to your doctor about ways to naturally lower and manage your blood pressure, as well as the medicinal options that are available to you.
Control your cholesterol: An excess of LDL or bad cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease, and if your levels are high, your doctor may recommend a prescription to control it as well as encourage you to eat healthier and exercise regularly.
Check for diabetes: Be sure to get screened for diabetes, as both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can increase your risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke.
Exercise: Exercising regularlyespecially cardio activitiescan help make your heart stronger and lower your cholesterol and blood pressure. Jogging, running, walking, bicycling, and swimming are all good examples of cardio exercises to help get your heart pumping.
Stress Or Depression Risk For Heart Disease
Stress or Depression may play a role in causing CHD. Stress can trigger your arteries to narrow and can raise your blood pressure and your risk for a heart attack. Getting upset or angry also can trigger a heart attack. Stress also may indirectly raise your risk for CHD if it makes you more likely to smoke or overeat foods high in fat and sugar. People who are depressed are two to three times more likely to develop CHD than people who are not. Depression is twice as common in women as in men. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hdw/atrisk
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Whats The Difference Between A Cardiac Arrest And A Heart Attack
The phrases cardiac arrest and heart attack are often confused, however are different.If youre having a cardiac arrest you will be unconscious, not breathing or not breathing normally. Your heart has stopped pumping blood around your body and youll need CPR and medical attention immediately. During a heart attack youll be conscious and breathing, but experiencing chest pain or discomfort.A heart attack is a medical emergency and can lead to cardiac arrest so its important to seek medical attention straight away.
How Is A Heart Attack Treated
Quick treatment to get the blood flowing to your heart muscle again is important. This can reduce the amount of permanent damage to your heart and save your life.
Many people need to have emergency treatment to restore the blood flow:
- Coronary angioplasty re-opens the blocked coronary artery by inserting one or more stents. This helps keep the narrowed artery open.
- Thrombolysis involves giving you clot-busting medicine to dissolve the blood clot thats blocking the coronary artery.
- Coronary bypass surgery helps to restore normal blood flow by using a blood vessel from your leg, arm or chest in your heart to bypass the blocked artery.
You might not have these treatments if your doctor decides its not safe or necessary.
Feelings After A Heart Attack
About one fourth of patients after a heart attack feel depressed, angry and afraid. These are normal responses that usually go away with time, as you get back to your regular activities. To help relieve the emotional blues:
- Get up and get dressed every day. Do not stay in bed all day
- Get out and walk daily. Daily activity will help you have a healthy mind and body.
- Resume hobbies and social activities you enjoy.
- Get a good nights sleep. Lack of sleep can cause you to feel tired or irritable. Be careful not to nap too much during the day, or you will not be able to sleep at night.
- Limit visits with friends and family at first, to avoid feeling over-tired. Increase them depending on how you feel. With time, these visits can be helpful to lift your spirits.
- Join a cardiac rehabilitation program emotional support is just one benefit to a guided activity & education program.
If you have questions, ask your health care team! You can avoid much stress for yourself and your family if you know about your heart disease and what you can and cannot do.
If you do not feel like your emotions are improving or you are concerned about feeling of depressed call your doctor. Medications and counseling is available to help you through this time.
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Identifying A Silent Heart Attack
People often dont learn that they had a heart attack until they have an electrocardiogram or a stress test and the doctor notices signs consistent with heart damage. As in traditional symptomatic heart attacks, a silent heart attack involves a blockage of blood flow to the heart. This injures and scars part of the heart muscle, leaving behind telltale signs.
Unfortunately, while a heart attack may go unnoticed, the injury it causes is real and puts you at higher risk for heart failure or a future heart attack.
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John Didnt Know He Was Having A Heart Attack
It was only during a routine health check, a full year after he felt unwell, that John discovered hed had a heart attack.
I thought a heart attack would feel like a sledgehammer hitting your chest where the pain is so great that you clutch your chest and hit the ground.
But I just felt hot and sweaty for a few minutes and that was it. I was in complete shock after that. I didnt realise you could have a heart attack and not even realise it.
Does A Mild Heart Attack Damage The Heart
A mild heart attack affects a relatively small portion of the heart muscle, or does not cause much permanent heart damage. This is because the blockage in a coronary artery occurs in a small artery that supplies a small portion of the heart muscle does not completely block blood flow to the heart or lasts briefly.
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About Half Of All Heart Attacks Are Mistaken For Less Serious Problems And Can Increase Your Risk Of Dying From Coronary Artery Disease
You can have a heart attack and not even know it. A silent heart attack, known as a silent myocardial infarction , account for 45% of heart attacks and strike men more than women.
They are described as silent because when they occur, their symptoms lack the intensity of a classic heart attack, such as extreme and pressure stabbing pain in the arm, neck, or jaw sudden shortness of breath sweating, and dizziness.
SMI symptoms can feel so mild, and be so brief, they often get confused for regular discomfort or another less serious problem, and thus men ignore them, says Dr. Jorge Plutzky, director of the vascular disease prevention program at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Womens Hospital.
For instance, men may feel fatigue or physical discomfort and chalk it up to overwork, poor sleep, or some general age-related ache or pain. Other typical symptoms like mild pain in the throat or chest can be confused with gastric reflux, indigestion, and .
Also, the location of pain is sometimes misunderstood. With SMI, you may feel discomfort in the center of the chest and not a sharp pain on the left side of the chest, which many people associate with a heart attack. People can even feel completely normal during an SMI and afterward, too, which further adds to the chance of missing the warning signs, says Dr. Plutzky.
Heart Attacks In Older Adults
Many older adults may not experience chest pain during heart attacks, particularly those with diabetes. Older people may have silent heart attacks, or they may notice mild symptoms, including:
- Feeling fatigued or tired
- Shortness of breath
Sometimes, older adults experience some of the milder heart-attack symptoms that women experience, like heartburn, nausea or sweating.
If youre concerned that you could be having a heart attack because of these milder symptoms, call 911 to get checked out. Even if youre only having trouble catching your breath especially if you havent done anything to physically exert yourself its worthwhile to investigate.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Silent Heart Attack
People who have a silent heart attack have symptoms not normally associated with a heart attack, mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. They may not realize theyve had a heart attack.
With a silent heart attack, symptoms can make you feel like:
- You have the flu.
- Feeling stressed.
- Using tobacco.
Some things put you at a higher risk of a heart attack, but you cant change them. These include:
- Having a history of heart disease in your family.
- Having preeclampsia during pregnancy.
- Being Native American, Mexican American, Black or native Hawaiian.
- Being older than 45 .
- Being postmenopausal or older than 55 .
- Being infected with COVID-19.
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You Get Exhausted Easily
If you suddenly feel fatigued or winded after doing something you had no problem doing in the past like climbing the stairs or carrying groceries from the car make an appointment with your doctor right away.
These types of significant changes are more important to us than every little ache and pain you might be feeling, Bufalino says.
Extreme exhaustion or unexplained weakness, sometimes for days at a time, can be a symptom of heart disease, especially for women.
When To See A Doctor
The British Heart Foundation recommend all women over 40 years of age have regular checks with their doctor. This helps identify risk factors early so that they can be treated. Early intervention reduces the chances of a cardiac event.
Anyone who notices the warning signs of a heart attack, such as the following, should see a doctor immediately:
- unusual fatigue
- shortness of breath
- upper body pain
A doctor will note symptoms, check blood pressure and heart rate, and may order blood tests or use an electrocardiogram to see the hearts electrical activity.
Only 65 percent of women would call emergency services if they suspected they were having a heart attack, according to a 2012 survey .
Emergency treatment can save lives. Anyone noticing the following symptoms should call an ambulance immediately, especially if the signs are present for 5 minutes or more:
- chest pain or discomfort
- pain in the upper body, including arms, back, neck, jaw, or shoulder
- difficulty breathing
Symptoms And What It Feels Like
Although an NSTEMI heart attack may cause less damage, it is still a medical emergency. If individuals have heart attack symptoms, they should seek emergency medical attention. However severe a heart attack is, it is always best to take a cautious approach.
The symptoms of an NSTEMI heart attack may resemble a regular heart attack. They
- pressure-like pain in the chest that lasts more than 10 minutes
- pain that radiates to either arm, neck, or jaw
- shortness of breath
People may also experience sudden shortness of breath with no other symptoms. Additionally, atypical symptoms may occur in females, older individuals over 75 years, and those with chronic disease. These symptoms may include stabbing pain, indigestion, and abdominal pain.
There are also differences in symptoms across sexes. Males usually experience chest pressure that lasts for several minutes, and they can also have shortness of breath, sweating, and nausea. Females usually experience middle or upper back pain and shortness of breath.
An extensive 2019 review of nearly 22,000 individuals noted that the symptoms of NSTEMI and STEMI heart attacks were similar. However, the proportion of individuals experiencing chest pain, sweating, radiating pain, and nausea was lower in NSTEMI than in STEMI heart attacks. Conversely, the proportion of shortness of breath and heart palpitations was higher in NSTEMI than in STEMI heart attacks.
Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection
SCAD is a type of heart attack that happens when the inner lining of a coronary artery tears for no clear reason, slowing or blocking blood flow down the artery.
SCAD can occur in otherwise healthy people who do not have the typical risk factors of heart disease. And according to an article in Clinical Cardiology , about 90% of SCADs happen to women between the age of 30 and 60.
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