Valve Failure/structural Valve Deterioration
Additionally, valve failure , referred to as structural valve deterioration , remains a concern for patients of all ages who receive tissue valves. Importantly, the younger the patient is, the faster a tissue valve wears out.4
Figure A: Comparison of Life Expectancy after Aortic Valve Replacement with Tissue Valvesand Relative Life Expectancy of the General Population in France.3
How Is Heart Valve Disease Diagnosed
If you are having symptoms, your doctor will suggest doing some tests to see how your heart is working.
The most common test is an echocardiogram. Your doctor might also suggest a chest x-ray or an ECG .
If you arent having symptoms, your doctor can still pick up signs of possible problems with your heart if they listen to the rhythm of your heart. If your doctor hears a murmur , they may refer you for further tests to see how your heart is working.
What Is The Aortic Valve
The aortic valve is the valve that blood has to go through to leave the main pumping chamber of the heart and get to the body via a large blood vessel called the aorta. Since it is a valve, it stops blood from flowing backward into the heart once it is pumped out. If the aortic valve is leaky, blood can flow backwards into the heart.
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What Are Heart Valves
The heart consists of 4 chambers2 atria and 2 ventricles . Blood passes through a valve as it leaves each chamber of the heart. The valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle. The 4 heart valves include the following:
Tricuspid valve. Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Pulmonary valve. Located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Mitral valve. Located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Aortic valve. Located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
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What Are The Risk Factors
Common risk factors for leaky valves are older age, family history, history of heart infections, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Some medications can also put you at risk of developing a leaky valve. While genetic or age-related risk factors cant be changed, managing or reducing the controllable risk factors as much as possible can help reduce your overall risk for leaky valves. Not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and daily exercise like walking are important steps to reduce overall risk. As always, check with a doctor before beginning a new exercise program if you have any existing health conditions.
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Mitral Valve Repaired Energy Restored
The feeling of having my normalcy back was immediate. I could breathe, Gallipo said. I was in bed in the hospital, and Dr. Wang came in and asked, How are you feeling? I said, I feel like I can get up and dance!
Dr. Wang says thats not uncommon. If theres adequate reduction in regurgitation, people notice a benefit immediately, he said. He also noted that surgery is still the standard approach for restoring mitral valve function. Theres usually mild or moderate residual regurgitation after the mitral clip procedure, he said. So the FDA has outlined certain criteria for use of this device.
As for Linda Gallipo, shes feeling much more energetic. She has returned to her active lifestyle and is planning a trip to California. She can also finally return to Dr. Muir to talk about new medication for her hepatitis C. I feel like a brand new person, she said. I cant get over it.
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When Do You Need Heart Valve Replacement Surgery
A heart valve disease develops when the valve becomes either stiff, narrow , or leaky . These two disease states of the valve disrupt the flow of blood in and out of the heart.
Heart valve diseases can be present by birth or occur as a complication of other health conditions, such as rheumatic heart disease.
Many people who have heart valve disease may never experience any symptoms. Sometimes, the valve disease is diagnosed when a woman is pregnant. Doctors may still recommend heart valve replacement surgery to prevent the worsening of the heart condition.
With a diseased valve, heart valve replacement surgery becomes an emergency if you experience:
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Indications For Mitral Valve Surgery
Mitral valve surgery is indicated for severe valvular disease, usually symptomatic, although surgery is also indicated in selected asymptomatic cases. The severity of valvular disease is judged according to standard echocardiographic criteria. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in certain settings, e.g., chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation where assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability is also important .
The most common indication for mitral valve surgery is symptomatic chronic severe primary mitral regurgitation, usually owing to degenerative valve disease, with a left ventricular ejection fraction of > 30% mitral valve surgery is indicated in symptomatic patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction refractory to medical therapy when there is low comorbidity, preferably mitral valve repair although mitral valve replacement may be considered in these patients when the likelihood of successful repair is low .
Certain patient characteristics are associated with a worse postoperative outcome independent of symptoms. Surgery is therefore indicated in asymptomatic patients with LV dysfunction and in those with preserved LV function and atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral regurgitation, or pulmonary hypertension .
Life Expectancy And Long
In the surgical group, no patients were lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration of the censored patients was 60.65±26.9months.
Life expectancy was 85.67months for the surgical group and 92.72months for the control group. Figure shows observed versus expected survival curves. Survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8years of follow-up for the aortic valve replacement group were 89.25% , 84.64% , 78.61% , 67.4% and 41.83% , respectively. For the reference group, survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8years of follow-up were 95.49% , 90.97% , 84.96% , 70.41% and 47.76% , respectively. Stratified analysis by age or sex are presented in the Supplementary Material.
Survival curves of the surgical group compared with the general population. CI: confidence interval.
The Cox model did not meet the proportional hazards assumption. So, incidence rates of mortality and IRR were calculated. For 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8years of follow-up, IRR were 2.5 , 1.1 , 1.08 , 0.78 and 1.33 . Figure shows IRR over time.
95% confidence interval of the IRR for mortality over time. Surgical group versus the reference population. Confidence intervals containing the value 1 indicate the absence of statistical significance. IRR: incidence rate ratio.
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Myth: Not All Atrial Fibrillation Is Important To Treat
The truth: Atrial fibrillation, or AFib, is caused by a misfiring of the electrical pathways in the heart muscle, interrupting the hearts ability to pump blood effectively. Individuals with heart disease often have AFib as well.
Sometimes, patients have symptoms such as dizziness or shortness of breath, but not necessarily. In either case, untreated, AFib can worsen valve disease and increase a patients risk of stroke and death.
That is why AFib should be addressed when valve disease is present.
Today, we have a vast range of therapy options for AFib, said Shivang Shah, MD, cardiologist at Franciscan Physician Network Indiana Heart Physicians in Indianapolis. These options include managing stroke risk and the symptoms associated with Afib. These options can be tailored to the individual patient using the shared decision-making principle at our office visits.
As far as Im concerned, there is no such thing as a little atrial fibrillation, said Dr. Gerdisch. When a patient is first admitted to a hospital with AFib, their five-year life expectancy drops 50 percent lower than their predicted lifespan. Thats why every major medical society recommends that AFib be addressed, when possible, during heart surgery.
Diagnosing And Treating Leaking Heart Valve
Just as causes vary by valve, treatment varies based on which valve is leaky. Diagnosis of this condition is usually completed by listening to the heart through a stethoscope and observing atypical sounds like heart murmurs, as well as examining images produced by an echocardiogram.
A leaky aortic valve may be treated using blood pressure medications, diuretics, and in severe cases, surgery. A leaky mitral valve often doesnt require treatment, and doctors usually recommend steady observation over time. However, if the mitral valve is leaking severely, surgery may be required. In the case of a leaky tricuspid valve, the use of diuretics can help relieve any bodily swelling, and in very rare cases, surgery may be required to replace the valve. Finally, a leaky pulmonary valve requires no direct treatmentthe best way to treat this is to address the medical condition that is causing it.
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Alternatives To An Aortic Valve Replacement
An aortic valve replacement is the most effective treatment for aortic valve conditions.
Alternative procedures are usually only used if open heart surgery is too risky.
Possible alternatives include:
- transcatheter aortic valve implantation the replacement valve is guided into place through the blood vessels, rather than through a large incision in the chest
- aortic valve balloon valvuloplasty the valve is widened using a balloon
- sutureless aortic valve replacement the valve is not secured using stitches to minimise the time spent on a heart-lung machine
Page last reviewed: 23 December 2021 Next review due: 23 December 2024
What Are The Symptoms Of Leaking Heart Valves
Leaking of heart valves means that the heart is not able to pump out enough blood to reach the peripheral organs and tissues. In this situation, the heart tends to beat faster in order to pump out more blood rapidly.Therefore, symptoms of leaky heart valves can be seen as the following:
- Chest discomfort or chest pain in severe conditions
- Swelling over ankles or feet
- Tiredness or fatigue
- Dizziness or fainting
Signs and symptoms may appear rapidly if the cause for valvular insufficiency is of a sudden onset whereas in some patients the signs and symptoms may develop gradually and are often unnoticeable.
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Stages Of Aortic Regurgitation
Stage A This is for people who are at risk of developing aortic regurgitation but do not have it yet. This includes patients with bicuspid aortic valve, history of infection on the valve, rheumatic heart disease, and people born with abnormalities of the valve.
Stage B These patients have mild or moderate aortic regurgitation. The heart function is normal and there are no symptoms. The heart is not significantly enlarged.
Stage C These patients still have no symptoms, but the aortic valve is severely leaky. The heart pumps relatively normally, however there is clear evidence of enlargement.
Stage D These patients have both a severely leaky aortic valve and symptoms. The heart is typically significantly enlarged. Symptoms include shortness of breath, particularly on exercise, swelling and fatigue.
An example of severe aortic regurgitation on an echocardiogram.
Patients Who Survived The Postoperative Period
After the postoperative period, 221 patients who underwent surgery died during the follow-up. Causes of death after the postoperative period are described in Table .
For surgical patients who survived the postoperative period, life expectancy or median of survival was 90.91months . For the reference population who did not die during the first 30days, life expectancy was 92.94months .
Figure shows observed versus expected survival curves. Survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8years of follow-up for SAVR patients who were discharged from the hospital were 94.90% , 90% , 83.50% , 71.66% and 44.48% , respectively. Survival rates for the general population at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8years of follow-up, who survived the first 30days were 95.8% , 91.26% , 85.23% , 70.64% and 47.91% , respectively.
Survival curves for patients who survived the postoperative period in the surgical group compared with the general population. CI: confidence interval.
The proportional hazards assumption for the Cox model was met .
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How Is An Aortic Valve Replacement Carried Out
An aortic valve replacement is carried out under general anaesthetic.
This means you’ll be asleep during the operation and won’t feel any pain while it’s carried out.
During the procedure:
- a large cut about 25cm long is made in your chest to access your heart although sometimes a smaller cut may be made
- your heart is stopped and a heart-lung machine is used to take over the job of your heart during the operation
- the damaged or faulty valve is removed and replaced with the new one
- your heart is restarted and the opening in your chest is closed
The operation usually takes a few hours.
You’ll have a discussion with your doctor or surgeon before the procedure to decide whether a synthetic or animal tissue replacement valve is most suitable for you.
What To Expect From Surgery
Surgery isnt always used to treat a leaky heart valve. But when it does become so severe that it needs to either be repaired or replaced, youll want to get back to exercising, eating, and drinking normally as soon as possible. However, dont put too much pressure on yourself at first. WebMD notes that it will take a few weeks to regain your energy.
Patients who are coming out of surgery will need to make a few slight changes to their diet. Theyll want to focus on eating more heart healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, says WebMD. Exercise is also important to help regain strength. Just dont do too much too soon. Exercising is something that should be gradually eased into and built up over time.
In most cases, the recovery time from surgery is about 4- to 8-weeks. If open heart surgery isnt needed, then it could be even shorter than that.
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When Is It Necessary To Replace The Aortic Valve
The aortic valve may need to be replaced for 2 reasons:
- the valve has become narrowed the opening of the valve becomes smaller, obstructing the flow of blood out of the heart
- the valve is leaky the valve allows blood to flow back through into the heart
The problems can get worse over time and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening problems such as heart failure if left untreated.
There are no medicines to treat aortic valve problems, so replacing the valve will be recommended if you’re at risk of serious complications but are otherwise well enough to have surgery.
Survival Rate Of Heart Valve Replacement Surgery
The survival rate for a heart valve replacement surgery depends on which valve is involved. This was analyzed in a large study in which the lifespan of a large population, who went ahead with the surgery, is observed for a specific timeframe.
The 5-year survival rate means what percentage of people lived for at least 5 years after the surgery. Similarly, the 10-year survival rate means what percentage of people lived for at least 10 years after the surgery.
For example, the 5-year survival rates for aortic valve replacement surgery is 94%. This means 94 out of 100 people who underwent AVR surgery could live at least 5 years.
Table 1: The Survival Rates as Per the Type of Valve in Heart Valve Replacement Surgeries
Survival rates for heart valve replacement surgery are often used as predictors of how long patients can live beyond a certain number of years after the surgery. However, these may vary for you depending on your age, your overall health, and the current status of your heart function. Discuss with your doctor about these factors to know about your life expectancy after the surgery.
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Moderate Mitral Valve Regurgitation Life Expectancy
Moderate Mitral Valve Regurgitation Life Expectancy. Ad download a free guide on heart valve disease. Mild regurgitation = normal life expectancy severe regurgitation, sudden onset = death in hours, days, weeks or months depending on other factors and with no.
The life expectancy in dogs with mitral valve disease varies and depends on. However, in other people, mr eventually produces decompensation of the heart, and heart failure results. Ad download a free guide on heart valve disease.
Mild regurgitation = normal life expectancy severe regurgitation, sudden onset = death in hours, days, weeks or months depending on other factors and with no. Moderate mitral valve regurgitation life expectancy.
Properly timed surgery gives patients with mitral regurgitation a postoperative survival rate similar to that of the general population. Moderate mitral valve regurgitation life expectancy.
Moderate mitral valve regurgitation life expectancy. Mitral valve regurgitation complications often depend on the severity of disease.
Mild regurgitation = normal life expectancy severe regurgitation, sudden onset = death in hours, days, weeks or months depending on other factors and with no. Mild mitral valve regurgitation usually does not cause any problems.
Source: rnews.experiencepress.orgSource: twg.nfcmusa.org
What Is The Purpose Of Heart Valves
The heart is made up of 4 chambers right and left atria and ventricles. These chambers are guarded by flap-like openings called valves. The 4 valves of the heart are:
As the cardiac muscles contract and relax to pump blood, the valves open and close completely they act like gates which regulate flow of blood into and outside the heart chambers and prevents backflow of blood.
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